Academic or Curriculum Evaluation in Education

Afza.Malik GDA

Academic Evaluation

Academic or Curriculum Evaluation in Education

Academic  or Curriculum evaluation includes course evaluation, results evaluation and performance evaluation.

Impact Evaluation (Results)

    The impact evaluation determines whether the program is achieving results. Desired and undesired outcomes are examined. Quasi-experimental designs can be used, such as pre- and post-test comparisons, as well as survey methods and case studies. If no results are obtained, the evaluator looks for consistency between other evaluation areas of the program and the impact evaluation. For example, the evaluator could analyze whether the problems identified in the evaluation of the normative treatment may be related to the failure to achieve the results. 

    All components of program evaluation must be considered for impact evaluation to be meaningful (Chen, 1990). For an educational program, the evaluator would determine whether the students have achieved the ultimate goals of the program. For nursing education, the assessment would include the pass rate for first-time national licensing exam takers and post-graduation employment statistics. If no results are obtained, Chen's theory directs the evaluator to return to the other components of the program evaluation. He recommends asking two questions: "Were the proposed goals realistic and did they reflect the consensus of the stakeholders?" and "Was the program implemented as planned?"

Evaluation Of The Intervention Mechanism

The purpose of evaluating intervention mechanisms is to uncover the causal processes that link treatment to outcomes. This component identifies the reasons why a program works or does not work. Three steps are included in this type of evaluation (1) specification of the intervening variable, which lies between the treatment and outcome variables, (2) observation and/or quantification of the intervening variables, and (3) inference from the outcomes. causal mechanisms through action mapping and conceptual theories. show the links between program activities and results (Chen, 1990). For an educational program, the variables that affect student learning would be identified and the rationale for instructional strategies explained.

Generalization Assessment

    The purpose of the generalization for assessment is to determine how the assessment results can be generalized to other situations of interest to stakeholders. Generalizability evaluation can be achieved by approaching program evaluation as evaluation research. Program evaluation is held to the same standards as any scientific endeavor. Research methods that best answer the program evaluation questions should be used. Quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods can be considered (Chen, 1990). For an educational program, the assessment of the validity and reliability of the assessment tools should be documented. Assessing the effectiveness of the program evaluation plan in improving program outcomes is the final aspect of the overall evaluation

The Program Evaluation Plan

    The program evaluation plan provides a road map for organizing and tracking evaluation activities. The plan is a written document that includes the evaluation framework, data collection and analysis activities, responsible parties, timeline, and means of using the information for the program.


    The program evaluation plan provides the mechanism for ongoing evaluation of the program's effectiveness. While the plan should stand on its own, it may be helpful for the nursing faculty to align accreditation criteria throughout the plan to ensure that the expectations of the accrediting bodies are met. Before the plan can be developed, responsibility for program evaluation activities must be understood and defined.

Responsible For Program Evaluation

    Responsibility for the development and implementation of the program evaluation plan rests with the nursing faculty. The development and implementation process may differ by nursing school, depending on factors such as the number of faculties in the nursing school and the institutional resources available to support the evaluation. An evaluator position is created in some schools to manage program evaluation practices, including the development and implementation of the program evaluation plan. 

    In large schools, an assessment office may be required to provide support staff to coordinate data collection at multiple levels. A common approach in small and medium-sized nursing schools is to appoint a standing faculty committee to lead and coordinate assessment efforts. Regardless of the plan, the nursing school must determine responsibility for each element of the evaluation plan. Without clear responsibilities and firm deadlines, evaluation efforts can easily get lost in day-to-day pressure and administration.

    Another issue is the reporting and recording of assessment data. Information has decision value unless it is communicated to those responsible for making the decision. Careful study of this topic not only increases the likelihood that decisions are based on real data, but also makes it easier to analyze the value of the data. Assessment data also serves as a rich resource when responses to external reports and accreditation expectations are required. One of the dangers of the theory-based approach is data overload. Because data is used to make decisions, its purpose is to determine what information is necessary and what is interesting but not important. Over time, one goal of the assessment is to rationalize the quantity

    The location of the rating information is also important. Access to information increases the likelihood of its use. An official site for review reports ensures these can be found if needed. Technological advances have made the development of computer databases an important source of information that can be accessed by multiple stakeholders from a central location or file server.

    Finally, the outcome of the assessment effort related to the creation of changes is an element that is sometimes omitted from the record. Accreditation bodies are as interested in the actions resulting from the analysis of assessment data as they are in the existence of a plan. The best plan loses value if it fails to bring about change when the data indicate the need for intervention.Adaptation of the model based on Chen's theory for the evaluation of nursing education programs

    The following section is based on an adaptation of Chen's theory-based model and provides suggestions for developing an appropriate program evaluation plan for a nursing education program. The components of the evaluation plan are organized according to Check six types of evaluation, with some rewording to clarify. and Goal Rating renamed. which more clearly defines the intent of this assessment and avoids confusion with the assessment of results. 

    Treatment Evaluation has been renamed and divided into two sections: Curriculum Evaluation and Teaching Effectiveness Evaluation.This example shows how all elements of program evaluation plans can be articulated, including theoretical program elements, evaluation activities, owners, timelines, and associated accreditation criteria. For the remaining evaluation components presented in this chapter, only examples of theoretical elements and methods for collecting and analyzing evaluation data relevant to the identified theoretical elements are provided. The theoretical elements and evaluation strategies suggested here are not exhaustive, but may help nursing faculty further develop their own program theory and program evaluation plan.

Mission Rating And Objective

    Program evaluation should begin with determining that the program's mission, philosophy, goals, and appropriate outcomes have been defined. The expectations of both internal and external stakeholders must be taken into account. Internal stakeholders include administrators, teachers, and governing bodies. External stakeholders include faith-based organizations for private schools with religious affiliations, regional accrediting bodies, national discipline-specific enrollment agencies, state commissions on education and boards of nursing, legislatures, and professional bodies. There must be congruence between stakeholder expectations and the program's mission, philosophy, goals, and outcomes. For private institutions with religious affiliations, some perspectives may be required and must be included in the mission, philosophy, goals, or outcomes.

    The mission of the nursing department must be consistent with the mission of the university. A comparison of key phrases in the department's mission with key phrases in the university's mission can be performed to assess congruence between mission statements. Identifying the gaps between the two mission statements will shed light on areas that need attention. The evaluation should be carried out periodically and whenever changes are made to any of the mission statements.

    There must be consensus among faculty about the mission and philosophy of the nursing school. A modified Delphi approach to determine the degree of agreement between the factorials for each statement in Mission and Philosophy is a useful strategy. The Delphi approach is useful for both developing and evaluating belief (philosophy) statements. This approach seeks consensus without the need for frequent face-to-face dialogue, in a way that protects the anonymity of the participants. In this method, questionnaires are distributed that list propositional statements about each of the content items of the belief statement. 

    A common breakdown of Delphi responses is a five-point range from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” to allow respondents to indicate that an organizational framework that organizes curriculum elements into a learning program degree is the curriculum design that provides guidance for both. the content of the curriculum and the content of the program and the teaching and learning processes associated with the implementation of the program The content of the curriculum represents both the specific knowledge of the discipline and the fundamental faculties of humanities first determine its definition of the discipline of knowledge that they can select courses that best serve students to prepare them for practice 

    Faculty must determine what pathways of knowledge or research methods are characteristic of the discipline and what skills the discipline requires Objective and outcome statements provide guidance for the program development. Program objectives link the mission and beliefs (philosophy) of faculty with curriculum design, teaching and learning methods, and outcomes. Consequently, the evaluation of the curriculum is based on the evaluation of the mission and goals.

Evaluation Of The Curriculum Organization

    The curriculum must be properly organized to move students along a continuum from program entry through graduation. The principle of vertical organization guides both curriculum planning and evaluation. This principle provides the rationale for the sequence of curriculum content elements. (Schwab, 1973) For example, the nursing faculty often uses depth and complexity as a guide to sequencing; That is, certain areas of content may be presented at later levels of the curriculum at a level of greater depth and complexity. 

    This is supported by the work of Gagne (1977), who developed a hierarchical theory of instruction based on the premise that knowledge is acquired by moving from data and concepts to principles and constructs. Complexity to determine if sequencing was useful for learning and yielded desired outcomes. Determining whether course and level objectives demonstrate sequential learning throughout the curriculum can be used as a test of vertical organization. Analysis can be performed using Bloom's (1956) taxonomy as a guide to determine whether goals follow a path of increasing complexity.

    The principle of internal consistency is important for curriculum evaluation. Curriculum design is a carefully conceived plan that emerges from what its creators believe about people and their education. The intellectual test of curriculum design is the extent to which the elements fit together. The four elements should be consistent goals, material taught, learning activities used, and outcomes (Doll, 1992). Evaluation efforts should include examining the extent to which goals and outcomes are linked to mission statements and beliefs. 

    The objectives of the program must be related to the level and objectives of the course. One method to assess internal consistency is to use a curriculum matrix (Heinrich et al., 2002). The matrix is ​​a visual representation that lists all nursing courses and shows the position of the main concepts resulting from the philosophy and conceptual framework of the program. Another approach to assess internal consistency is a curriculum audit (Seager & Anema, 2003). Similar to a curriculum matrix, the curriculum audit provides a visual representation that links competencies to courses and learning activities.

    The principle of linear congruence, sometimes referred to as horizontal organization, helps teachers determine which courses should precede and follow others, and which should occur concurrently (Schwab, 1973). The sequencing concept follows the principle of moderate novelty, in that new information and experiences are only presented after existing knowledge has been assimilated (Rabinowitz & Schubert, 1991). An appropriate question is: “What entry skills and knowledge does the student need as a prerequisite for later knowledge and experience? 

    The answer to this question by the teachers determines the design and implementation of the curriculum. The assessment would address the extent to which students have access. This is a critical question given the changing profile of students entering college-level courses. It is difficult to determine which prerequisites are required for admission and which should be acquired at the same time. Computer skills are a good example. Students begin programs with varying degrees of computer skills. 

    The required prerequisites and the order in which advanced skills are to be acquired during the internship need to be determined. Curriculum Some nursing programs use a specific conceptual framework that identifies key program “strands” and provides further guidance for curriculum development and implementation. The congruence between fields of study, study goals, study goals and study content must also be checked. For more information on curriculum development and the curriculum framework.

Course Grade

    Individual courses are reviewed to determine if they have passed tests of internal consistency, linear consistency, and vertical organization. A triangulation approach to course evaluation is helpful. This approach uses data from three sources: faculty, students, and material review to identify strengths and areas for change (DiFlorio et al., 1989). Each course is evaluated to determine whether the content elements, learning activities, assessments, and learning outcomes are consistent with the course objectives and course commitments in terms of their integration into the general curriculum.

    Teachers must clearly articulate the sequential levels of each expected skill to determine what teaching and learning strategies are required to advance the student to progressive skill levels and to establish criteria for determining that each stage of development has been achieved. This need is important not only in relation to subject or subject-specific skills, but also to transferable skills acquired in the general education component of the curriculum (Loacker & Mentkowska, 1993). Some teachers accomplish this by creating content cards for each major or pervasive strand in the curriculum with associated knowledge and skill elements. The content cards demonstrate each course's commitment to facilitating student progress toward the expected outcome of the program. The maps also provide guidance to assess whether items were installed as planned.

    Angelo and Cross (1993) developed a tool for mapping instructional objectives that is useful in evaluating individual courses. The purpose is to help instructors identify and clarify their instructional objectives by helping them rank the relative importance of instructional objectives in a given course. The creation of the Instructional Goals Inventory began in 1986 and involved a complex process involving a literature review, multiple cycles of data collection and analysis, expert analysis, and field testing with hundreds of teachers (Angelo & z Cross: 1993 ). 

    In this process, Angelo and Cross developed a tool that groups goals into higher-order thinking skills, core academic success, discipline-specific knowledge and skills, humanities and academic values, job and career readiness, and personal development. This tool can help the teacher prioritize the selection of teaching and learning activities intended to move the student toward the desired goals and assess whether the goals and teaching strategies align with the course objectives.

Support Course Assessment And The Liberal Education Foundation

    Liberal education is central to professional education Expected outcomes for the humanities component of professional programs have received much attention in recent years (Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2002). Expected outcomes for college students today include effective communication skills. the use of quantitative and qualitative data to solve problems, the ability to evaluate different types of information, work effectively on complex systems, manage change, and demonstrate good judgment in the use of knowledge. 

    Additionally, students must demonstrate a commitment to civic engagement, an understanding of different cultures, and the ability to apply ethical arguments. The School of Nursing must work inter disciplinary with the faculty to ensure that the general education curriculum supports the expectations of a 21st century liberal education.

    Assessment questions about general education courses should address the extent to which the selected courses enable student learning and contribute to expected outcomes. They should also be selected for sequencing to ensure that supporting courses adequately base and complement the specialization and enrich the combination of data for the organization and use of knowledge in practice. To develop assessment questions related to general education courses, faculty must first articulate the rationale for each course, what outcomes are expected from the courses, and how the courses support the specialization to provide a broad, liberal education. When expectations are clear, it is easier to select the metrics needed to determine whether expectations have been met. The evaluation of the results of the general education courses is given in the results section.

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