How Make True False And Matching

Afza.Malik GDA

Test Setting Techniques in Nursing 

How Make True-False And Matching
True and false or multiple choice question forms under rules and regulations in education system.

What are True and False or Matching 

Questions and Their Importance   

    There are different ways of classifying types of test items. One way is based on how they are scored objectively or subjectively. An example of an objectively scored item is multiple choice: There is one correct or best answer. By choosing that answer, students receive a particular score, such as one point. Essay items are subjectively scored: The teacher judges the quality of the response based on criteria or a rubric for scoring. 

    Another way is to group test items by the type of response required of the test-taker. Selected-response items require the test-taker to select the correct or best answer from options provided by the teacher. Examples of these items include true false, matching exercises, multiple choice, and multiple response. Constructed response items, such as completion and essay, ask the test-taker to supply an answer rather than choose from options already provided. 

    For each of the item formats presented in this book, a number of principles should be considered when writing them. Although important principles are described, the lists presented are not intended to be inclusive; other sources on test construction might include additional helpful suggestions for writing test items. Appendix A provides a quick reference guide to writing varied types of test items with examples. In addition to test items, other assessment strategies are written assignments, cases, presentations, and projects that student complete. 

    These strategies and others, including methods for evaluating clinical performance, are discussed in the book. Tests and other types of assessment strategies may be used at the beginning of a course to determine whether students have the prerequisite knowledge for achieving the outcomes or whether they have already met them. With courses that are competency based, students can then progress to the next area of instruction. 

    Tests, quizzes, and other assessment strategies also are used during the instruction to provide the basis for formative assessment. This form of assessment is to monitor learning progress, provide feedback to students, fill in gaps in their learning, and suggest additional learning activities as needed. The goal of formative assessment is to support students on their learning: It is assessment for learning (Brookhart & Nitko, 2019). At the end of the course, tests and other assessment strategies determine whether students have achieved the outcomes and are the basis for assigning a grade in the course.


    A true false item consists of a statement that the student needs to judge as either true or false. In some items, students also correct false statements or supply a rationale as to why the statement is true or false. True–false items are most effective for recall of facts and specific information but also may be used to test the student's understanding of the information. They are not intended for assessing complex thinking, which Miller, Linn, and Gronlund (2013) suggested is the main limitation of using these items. 

    Each true–false item represents a declarative sentence stating a fact or principle and asks the learner to decide whether it is true or false, right or wrong, correct or incorrect. Some authors refer to this type of test item as alternate response, allowing for these varied response formats. For affective outcomes, agree-disagree might be used, asking the learner to agree or disagree with a value-based statement. There are different opinions as to the value of true-false items. 

    Although some authors express concern over the low level of testing, focusing on recall of facts and the opportunity for guessing, others indicate that true–false items provide an efficient means of examining student acquisition of knowledge in a course. With true-false items, students can respond to a large number of items in a short time. For that reason, true–false items are useful to include on a quiz or test, and they also provide a way of testing a wide range of content. 

    These items are easy to write and to score. Although true–false items are relatively easy to construct, the teacher should avoid using them to test meaningless information. Designed to examine student recall and understanding of important facts and principles, true–false items should not be used to evaluate memorization of irrelevant information. 

    Prior to constructing these items, the teacher should ask: Is the content assessed by the true–false item important when considering the course outcomes? Does the content represent knowledge taught in the class or through other methods of instruction? Do the students need an understanding of the content to progress through the course and for their further learning?

    The main limitation to true-false items is guessing. Because one of the two responses has to be correct, the probability that a student will answer the item correctly is 50%. However, the issue with guessing is not as much of a problem as it seems. With no knowledge of the facts being tested, on a 10-point quiz, the student would only be expected to answer five of the items or 50% correctly. Brookhart and Nitko (2019) suggested that few students in a course respond to test items with blind or completely random guessing. 

    Most students have some knowledge of the subject even if they need to guess an answer. It is also difficult to obtain an adequate score on a test by using random guessing only. Although students have a 50/50 chance of guessing a correct answer on one true–false item, the probability of guessing correctly on a test with many items is small. For example, if a test has 10 true–false items, a student who guesses blindly on all of those items has less than six chances out of 100 of having 80% or more of the items correct. Writing True–False Items The following discussion includes some important principles for the teacher to consider when constructing true–false items.

    1. The true-false item should test recall of important facts and information. The teacher should avoid constructing items that test trivia and meaningless information. The content should be worth knowing and be important in relation to the course outcomes.

    2. The statement should be true or false without qualification—unconditionally true or false. The teacher should be able to defend the answer without conditions.

    3. Avoid words such as usually, sometimes, often, and similar terms. Because these words typically are used more often in true statements, they give students clues to the correct response. Along the same lines, avoid words such as never, always, all, and none, which often signal a false response.

        4. Avoid terms that indicate an infinite degree or amount such as large. They can be interpreted differently by students.

    5. Each item should include one idea to be tested rather than multiple ones. When there are different propositions to be tested, each should be designed as a single true–false item.

    6. Items should be worded precisely and clearly. The teacher should avoid long statements with different qualifiers and focus the sentence instead on the main idea to be tested. Long statements take time for reading and do not contribute to testing student knowledge of an important fact or principle. Brookhart and Nitko (2019) recommended that short statements work best for true–false items because the item can be focused on essential content to be assessed.

    7. Avoid the use of negatives, particularly in false statements. They are confusing to read and may interfere with student ability to understand the statement. For instance, the item “It is not normal for a 2-year-old to demonstrate hand preference” (true) would be stated more clearly as, “It is normal for a 2-year old to demonstrate hand preference” (false) . If negative words such as not and no must be used in the item, they should be highlighted.

    8. With a series of true–false items, statements should be similar in length. The teacher may be inclined to write longer true sentences than false ones in and attempt to state the concept clearly and precisely.

    9. Check that the answers to true-false items are not ordered in a noticeable pattern on the test. For example, the teacher should avoid arranging the items in a pattern in which the answers would be TFTF or FTTFTT.

    10. Decide how to score true-false items prior to administering them to students. In some variations of true–false items, students correct false statements; for this type, the teacher should award 2 points, 1 for identifying the statement as false and 1 for correcting it. With items of this type, the teacher should not reveal the point value of each item because this would cue students that 2-point items are false.

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