Computerized Decision Support Systems In Nursing

Afza.Malik GDA

Computer Support System In Nursing

Computerized Decision Support Systems In Nursing

DDS In Nursing ,Therapeutic DDS,Diagnostic DDS,DDS In Health Care,Goals Of DDS,Scope Of DDS ,Computerized Decision Support Systems.

Computerized Decision Support Systems

    Although there is no clear agreement about how to define Computerized Decision Support Systems (DSSs), most would agree that a DSS can be defined in general as a computerized system used to aid decision making related to semi-structured problems. 

    But some incorrectly include under the umbrella of DSS software that are not truly DSSS, such as expert systems. While differentiation is fuzzy, in general a true DSS is a collection of software programs, at the core of which are mathematical and statistical modeling components which act with real data to facilitate decision making. 

    A defining characteristic of DSSS is that they are proactive. They provide rapid responses to real situations based on real data, models, and established guidelines. 

    They are designed to be flexible, and allow ad hoc queries and easy changing of parameters in order to accommodate clinician intuition and judgment.

Scope Of DDS 

    DDS systems vary in terms of complexity and scope, ranging from simple provision of integrated reports to use of inferencing methods to determine complex associations between two pieces of data. 

    While their goal is to facilitate effective decision making, they deal with problems that are relatively unstructured. 

    For example, such a system might be used to predict how a new patient care treatment might affect the average duration of patient stay in an institutional setting.

Goals Of DDS

    The ultimate goal of any DSS is to help clinicians overcome their cognitive resource limitations for processing and storage as well as problem solving in an increasingly complex medical environment. 

    DSSS do this by helping clinicians to manage information overload in order to properly assess all of the relevant information and generate systematic and reasonable therapy. 

    This has the net effect of facilitating standardization of care. reducing errors, and improving quality of care.

DDS In Health Care

    Healthcare DSS systems use actual patient data to provide information that can help clinicians make decisions. 

    Wyatt and Spiegelhalter (1990) add the requirement that a medical DSS generate case-specific advice. The use of DSSS in clinical decision support can be divided into two categories: diagnostic and therapeutic.

Diagnostic DDS

    There are several types of diagnostic DSSs. First are systems generating differential diagnoses. Such systems provide lists of possible diagnoses based on given clinical data. 

    How- ever, such systems are often problematic as the potential benefit for the differential diagnosis-generating DSS to inform caregivers about additional relevant diagnoses can be outweighed by the "noise" that arises from the presentation of irrelevant or inappropriately ranked diagnostic choices (Weiner & Pipers , 2000). 

    Another type of DSS is based on a rule in/out model. These are used by caregivers to rule in or out a small set of diagnoses based on a given set of objective clinical signs and symptoms. 

    They function like a second opinion and have been successful in limited application (Weiner & Pifer ). 

    A third type of DSS is used for computer-aided review of clinical tests such as radiographs or pathology specimen evaluation ( Alberdi et al., 2000; Peters, 1996). Such systems help caregivers to interpret results, and have again had success in limited application.

Therapeutic DDS

    Therapeutic DSSs focus on decision making in point of care treatment. Some focus on medication dosing, with the goal of reducing errors and complications. Others manage complex processes such as ventilation and oxygenation (East et al., 1999). 

    Most therapeutic DSSS focus on compliance of caregivers with established quality-of-care guidelines, such as embedding hypertension guidelines within the hypertensive patient record McAlister, Covvy , Tong, Lee, & Wigle,1986). 

    Their goal is to generate, at the point-of-care, patient-specific evidence-based therapy instructions that can be carried out by different clinicians with little inter-clinician variability. Individualization of patient therapy is preserved by these explicit protocols since they are driven by individual patient data (Morris, 2001). 

    A good example in nursing of such a DSS is the Braden System ( Bergstrom , 1997). This is a DSS that guides the caregiver through risk assessment and then suggests risk-based care tailored to the specific patient risk-factors based on published guidelines. 

    However, while the use of DSSS in therapeutics seems reasonable, research is need that demonstrate their benefits in terms of outcome measures (Weiner & Pifer , 2000). 

    Nursing research in the area of informatics has a history of perhaps 25 years, most of which has been heavily invested in the basic work necessary for the building of DSS systems . 

    This basic work includes the development and identification of classification systems, taxonomies, vocabularies, best practices, essential data elements, and types of information used in nursing research and nursing decision making (McCormick & Jones, 1998; Werley , Devine, Zorn, Ryan, & Westra , 1991; Benner, 1984). 

    While nurse informaticists have also developed circumscribed DDS systems using these building blocks, research related to the accuracy of the decisions and the efficacy of these systems in improving outcomes is fairly limited (Johnston , Langton , Haynes, & Mathieu, 1994) . 

    One study was located which tested the accuracy of a DSS system in using assessment data with a forward chaining inference engine to identify nursing diagnoses and interventions appropriate to the patient (Hendrickson & Paganelli , 1994). 

    A few studies have moved beyond these basic issues to test the effectiveness of specific DSS systems in producing nursing decisions that result in better outcomes of care ( Cuddigan , Logan, Evans, & Hoesing , 1988; Petrucci et al., 1992 ). 

    Some have also moved to development of decision support systems based on established guidelines (Bowles, 2003). 

    Future research will likely focus on how DSSS can help nurses help patients make decisions in scenarios characterized by the need for careful deliberation about alternatives due to the risk or uncertainty of the outcomes or the value-laden nature of the decision (O'Connor et al ., 1997).

DDS In Nursing 

    In 1993, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) constituted an expert panel on Nursing Informatics. They were charged with setting research priorities for nursing informatics as part of the National Nursing Research Agenda. 

    In carrying out this mandate, the panel identified seven foci for research, and within each focus, these experts assessed the state of the science, then identified and prioritized more specific research needs (NINR, 1993). 

    These foci were: 

(a) using data, information, and knowledge to deliver and manage patient care

(b) defining and describing data and information for patient care

(c) acquiring and delivering knowledge from and for patient care

(d) investigating new technologies to create tools for patient care

(e) applying patient-care ergonomics to the patient-nurse-machine interaction

(f) integrating systems for better patient care

(g) evaluating the effects of nursing information systems 

    Similarly, in 2001 lawmak ers provided the Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) with $50 million to undertake a major research initiative investigating the problem of medical errors. 

    Among funded projects now under way are four different studies (two in adult and two in pediatric populations) assessing the impact of using handheld DSSS in ambulatory care settings (Ortiz & Clancy, 2003). 

    Health care delivery today is so complex that it is currently straining the resources of the country, and multifaceted clinical decisions are being made in an environment of rapidly escalating intensity. 

    As DSS systems are developed to produce specific patient-care protocols that have been validated through using rigorous methodologies, these systems have the potential to decrease harmful variation in care, improve clinical decision making, reduce errors, optimize outcomes of care, and cut health care costs.

Post a Comment


Give your opinion if have any.

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Ok, Go it!) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Check Now
Ok, Go it!