HIV Symptom Management and Nursing Care

Afza.Malik GDA

Nursing Care for HIV Symptom Management

HIV Symptom Management and Nursing Care

 HIV Symptom Management,Signs & Symptoms,Effects of Anxiety,Nursing Interventions for Anxiety and Depression,Distant Care Concept,Fatigue as a Symptoms,Peripheral Neuropathy 

HIV Symptom Management

    Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are generally living longer. Viral loads have diminished to undetectable levels, CD4+ cell counts have increased, and opportunistic infections have become more manageable. 

    However, people with HIV frequently reported increased medical and disease-related symptomatology (Kirksey et al., 2002). Therefore, client-initiated or provider directed symptom management has become an increasingly important component of care. 

    The primary objective of nursing interventions is to enhance health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for people with HIV. Symptoms are primary reasons why individuals seek health care (Lee, K., & Carrieri, 2003). 

    A symptom is "any condition accompanying or resulting from a disease or physical disorder and serving as an aid in diagnosis" (Webster's New World College Dictionary, 2001, p. 1451). Symptoms are subjective phenomena that indicate a departure from normal functioning, sensation, or appearance. 

    These entities are a person's perception of abnormal physical, emotional, or cognitive states. IB Wilson and Cleary (1995) described symptom reporting as an expression of subjective experiences that summarize and integrate data from an array of different sources. 

    Several authors have noted that when symptom control is not achieved, quality of life can be adversely affected (Holzemer, Spicer, Wilson, Kemppainen, & Coleman, 1998; Lee, K., & Carrieri).

Signs & Symptoms

    The University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing Symptom Management Faculty Group (1994) defined symptoms as subjective experiences based upon cognitive changes, sensation, or biopsychosocial function. 

    The model is comprised of three interrelated dimensions: symptom experience, management strategies, and outcomes. The first category reflects an individual's perception of a symptom. 

    The second category, management strategies, includes self-care behaviors. And the last category, symptom outcomes, may include entities like HRQOL.

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) International HIV Nursing Research Network has conducted a number of multisite studies in order to identify the pervasive symptoms and self care management strategies used by persons with HIV, Among the most frequently reported symptoms were: anxiety, depression, fatigue, and neuropathy. 

    The following sections contain brief summaries of recent scientific studies related to each of these symptoms.

Effects of Anxiety

    According to Kemppainen and others (2003), anxiety is one of the most prevalent symptoms experienced by people with HIV. Dew and colleagues (1997) noted that clients with a prior history of an anxiety disorder prior to being diagnosed with HIV were at greater risk of recurrence of symptoms. 

    Precipitating factors may include lack of partner support and inability to master or control life events. JG Johnson, Williams, Rabkin, Goetz, and Remien (1995) found a relationship between pre-existing personality disorder and the onset of HIV related anxiety. 

    The researchers compared 52 HIV-negative and 110 HIV-positive men, 19% of whom had a pre-existing personality disorder. 

    Participants in the HIV-positive group displayed greater levels of anxiety than those in the HIV-negative group. In another study with a similar premise, Ferrando and colleagues (1998) noted a relationship among depression, substance use, and prevalence of anxiety in an ethnically-diverse sample of 267 HIV negative and HIV-positive males. 

    HIV-positive participants (n=183) who continued to use illegal substances reported higher levels of emotional stress.

Nursing Interventions for Anxiety and Depression

    Neidig, Smith, and Brashers (2003) postulated that aerobic training may assist in reducing or preventing depression symptoms experienced by people living with HIV. Sixty HIV-infected adults participated in a randomized controlled trial where clients were subjected to a 12-week aerobic exercise training program. 

    When compared with the control group, participants in the exercise group showed significant reductions in depressive symptoms.

Distant Care Concept

    In another study using a telephone support group for HIV-positive persons over the age of 50 years, Nokes, Chew, and Altman (2003) determined that identifying symptoms and exploring the use of effective medications and treatments aided in reducing depression.

Fatigue as a Symptoms

    Fatigue is a common symptom of HIV and is associated with impaired physical functioning and poor HRQOL (Breitbart et al., 1998). Piper, Lindsey, and Dodd (1987) defined fatigue as "a subjective feeling of tiredness that is influenced by circadian rhythm. It can vary in unpleasantness, duration and intensity" (p. 19). 

    Some researchers (Capaldini, 1998; Perkins, DO, et al., 1995; Walker, K., McGowan, Jantos, & Anson, 1997) have postulated that there is a correlation between depression and fatigue in persons with HIV infection. 

    However, others (Breitbart et al., 1998; Ferrando et al., 1998) disagreed and observed that although it is associated with depression, fatigue makes a separate contribution to morbidity in HIV-infected persons.

Peripheral Neuropathy 

    Nicholas and colleagues (2002) stated that peripheral neuropathy is "the most common neurological complication in HIV disease (p. 763). 

    These investigators noted that neuropathy was the third most frequently reported symptom in a convenience sample of 422 persons living with HIV Forty four percent of the self care management strategies were categorized as complementary or alternative therapies, however, there was a lack of consensus about the efficacy of these interventions.

    Quality of life is a perception of circumstances which is dependent upon psychological makeup. The central assumption is that individuals are the best sources of judgment about HRQOL, and it cannot be assumed that everyone will value life circumstances in the same way. 

    Burgoyne and Saunders (2001) stated that quality-of-life assessment involves an appraisal of one's current state against some ideal. Goal attention, coping, decision making assessment, and value systems are examples of predictors of HRQOL.

    Kemppainen (2001) examined whether or not variables relating to sociodemographic attributes, illness severity, and psychological status predict quality of life in persons with HIV. 

    Using a convenience sample (n=162), the author found that the strongest predictor of decreased HRQOL scores was depression. Additionally, the investigator noted that the number of symptoms also had a profound effect on HRQOL

    In another study, Sousa, Holzemer, Henry, and Slaughter (1999) performed a secondary analysis (n=142) to empirically test the influence of symptom status, functional status, and general health perceptions on overall HRQOL in persons living with HIV. 

    Analysis suggested that these variables were key dimensions of HRQOL. The investigators concluded that focusing nursing interventions on decreasing symptoms or assisting the client in identifying self-care management strategies positively affects general health perceptions and enhances overall HRQOL. 

    Douai Hy and Singh (2001) noted that "physical manifestations, antiretroviral therapy, psychological well-being, social support systems, coping strategies, spiritual well-being, and psychiatric comorbidities are important predictors of QOL...".

 This review presented select articles addressing symptom identification and management as correlates to HRQOL in persons with HIV infection. Scholarly endeavors concerning quality of life have helped shape standards of care by broadening conceptualizations of outcome measures. 

  However, additional scientific studies designed to explore the efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies, as well as public discourse on symptom management strategies related to quality-of-life enhancement, are still needed.


Post a Comment


Give your opinion if have any.

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Ok, Go it!) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Check Now
Ok, Go it!