Healthcare and Violence Issues

Afza.Malik GDA

Violence Issue In Healthcare

Healthcare and Violence Issues

What is Violence,Victims of Violence,Women Violence,Violence and Nursing Research,Ethical and Safety Issues,Nursing Contributions,Elderly Violence,Instruments to Identify Elder at Risk for Violence,Epidemics of Adolescent Violence,Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence,Risk factors for adolescent violence.

What is Violence

    Violence is a public health problem in the United States that impacts individuals, families, and communities. The US has experienced a downward trend in violence to 23 million violent and property crimes during 2002, but it remains one of the most violent countries in the industrialized world (US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2003). 

    The violent crime rate de creased from 25 per 100,000 persons aged 12 years and older in 2001 to 23 per 100,000 persons aged 12 years and older in 2002. The rate of every major violent and property crime declined from 1993 to 2002. 

    Rape/sexual assault decreased 56%, robbery 63%, aggravated assault 64%, simple assault 47%, household burglary 52%, motor vehicle theft 53%, and property theft 49% (US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs).

Victims of Violence 

    Victims of violence are violated physically, emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, and socially. Nurses are engaged in providing care to victims and perpetrators of violence in a variety of health care settings. 

    Nursing scholarship related to violence recognizes the complex interaction of community factors (in equality, marginalization, disparity, residential mobility, poverty, lack of education, lack of career opportunities, housing, social and cultural norms, stigmatization and bias, and population density) in addition to individual and familial risk factors that require evidence and research based preventive measures.

Women Violence

    Violence and abuse against women (VAAW) have been recognized globally as a public health problem affecting women regardless of age, culture, or socioeconomic status. Types of VAAW consist of physical, psychological, and sexual; various controlling behaviors by perpetrators; stalking; and workplace violence.

Violence and Nursing Research 

    Nursing research has grown out of concern for the victim of abuse and has been focused on risk factors, battering syndrome, intimate partner violence, children of battered women, consequences of abuse, relationships of HIV infections and violence, and abuse during pregnancy. 

    A published review of violence research by Campbell, Harris, and Lee (1995) highlighted significant findings in the area of VAAW. ManfrinLeder and Porche (2003) published a metaanalysis of the state of the science in the intersections of violence and HIV infection.

Ethical and Safety Issues

    Ethical conduct and safety issues in VAAW research are critical. Future research should focus on interventions for preventing and combating VAAW, lifetime health consequences of violence, and long-term effects of VAAW programs using various methodologies in different cultural settings.

Nursing Contributions

    Contributions by nurse researchers related to the study of child abuse have focused on shaken baby syndrome, the battered child, health and sociological consequences of child abuse, risk factors, child sexual assault, and neglect. 

    Clements and Burgess (2002) conducted research to understand children's re sponges to family member homicide and associations with complicated bereavement, including childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. 

    Future research in the area of child abuse must take into account standards and expectations in differing cultures for parenting behavior, the inclusion of cultural issues, and the long term effects of child abuse, interventions for prevention and treatment, and empowerment strategies for victims of abuse .

Elderly Violence

    Elder abuse and neglect are significantly underdiagnosed and underreported. The National Center on Elder Abuse ( nd ) defines seven different types of elder abuse: physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; financial exploitation; neglect abandonment and self-neglect. 

    Elder abuse is largely hidden under a shroud of family secrecy, in addition to the problem of not being recognized by health care providers

Instruments to Identify Elder at Risk for Violence

    Researchers have developed valid and reliable instruments to identify elders at risk of abuse. Instruments include screening tools for elder abuse or tools whose purpose is to assess existing cases of elder abuse for future risk. 

    Two elder abuse screening tools are the HwalekSeng stock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS/EAST) and the Indicators of Abuse Screen. Risk assessment tools for future abuse generally contain a list of indicators or conditions which are rated with regard to the elder's risk for future victimization. 

    Typical indicators include client characteristics, environmental risk factors, support services, historical abuse factors and patterns, and abuse factors (Wolf, 2003). Nursing scholarship by Fulmer and Gurland (1996) has addressed elder mistreatment and elder abuse assessment. 

    Phillips and Rem Pusheski (1985) studied diagnostic and intervention decisions in elder abuse and neglect.

Epidemics of Adolescent Violence

    The epidemic of adolescent violence forces millions, including youth, families, and communities, to cope with injury, disability, and fatality. Homicide is a leading cause of death for adolescents. Two general trajectories have been proposed to explain the development of adolescent violence. 

    One is the development of violence before puberty and another is violence beginning in adolescence. Earlier development, before age 13 years, is generally associated with more violence and more serious crimes over a longer period of time, continuing into adulthood (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a).

 Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence

    Risk factors for adolescent violence include involvement in serious criminal activities, substance use before age 13 years, male gender, hostility, low socioeconomic status, antisocial parents, drug selling, weak social bonds to traditional peers, ties to delinquent peers, and gang membership ( US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a).

    Adolescent violence is preventable behavior that needs to be understood and treated. However, nursing research related to adolescents cent violence has been rather limited. 

    Vesey, Duffy, O'Sullivan, and Swanson (2003) have studied teasing, a precursor to bullying, and developed the Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale Revised (PARTSR) instrument to assess teasing in school age children. 

    Future research in nursing should take into account risk and protective factors among the biological, psychological, and social contextual aspects of adolescent violence.

Nursing Practices and Violence 

    Nursing research, practice, health policy, and political activism have all been instrumental in addressing violence as a health phenomenon. Nursing research on violence has advanced the science of violence prevention and treatment. 

    However, more research remains that build on the body of scholarship available. A variety of methodological approaches, including quantitative and qualitative designs, is called for in future violence research in nursing. 

    Research data on human responses to violence should provide direction for improved health care, nursing care outcomes, and policy.


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