Nursing Educational View of Angela Barron McBride

Afza.Malik GDA

Nursing  Education Concept By Angela Barron McBride

Nursing  Educational View of Angela Barron McBride

Who is Angela Barron McBride,Journey to Education,Interest in Teaching,Readiness for Teaching,Training For Teaching,Developing as A Teacher,Give Fifteen Credits of Doctoral Study,Comfortable As a Teacher,Challenges ,Memorable Teaching Moments,Rewarding Aspects,Least Rewarding Aspects,Maintaining Excellence,Advice for Teachers.

Who is Angela Barron McBride

    Dr. McBride received her bachelor's degree in nursing from Georgetown University, her master's degree in psychiatric mental health nursing from Yale University, and her PhD in developmental psychology from Purdue University. 

    She is a Distinguished Professor and University Dean Emerita at Indiana University School of Nursing. Dr. McBride has authored 4 books and has contributed to over 40 other books. She has published her work in over 70 professional journals and in several popular magazines.

    Dr. McBride was given a Distinguished Alumna Award by Yale University and by Purdue University. She was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, and a Distinguished Practitioner of the National Academies of Practice, and was chosen to be a National Kellogg Fellow.

    She received honorary doctorates from the University of Cincinnati, Eastern Kentucky University, Georgetown University, Medical College of Ohio, University of Akron, and Purdue University.

Journey to Education

    Dr. Angela Barron McBride has a deep commitment to facilitating career development of doctoral students and faculty in nursing. She believes that academic administrators maintain moral authority by continuing to teach and to publish. She views her relationship with Virginia Henderson as having a profound influence on her life.

Interest in Teaching

    She doesn’t know that she made a conscious decision to go into nursing education. When she finished her master's at Yale, She was invited to stay on and join the faculty. Her decision to become a teacher was made for her in some ways because it was a very attractive environment. 

    This was the decade of the 1960s, when the Yale School of Nursing was taking the lead in developing clinical research in nursing. Dickoff and James were at Yale writing about what it meant to be in a practice profession. 

    It was an enormously stimulating environment. She shared an office with Donna Diers, next door was Jean Johnson and Rhetaugh Dumas, and Ernestine Wiedenbach and Elizabeth Sharp were on the other side.

    The initial decision to take the teaching position was an opportunity that she thought she could not refuse. She worked full time at the beginning and found academia to be flexible when you had small children. 

    Yale allowed her to work part time then, and she will always be grateful that she had interesting part-time work that was career building. So, she was not overwhelmed with juggling 3,000 things as a new mother. 

    During her last years at Yale, 1 managed a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant focused on development of Psychiatric Nurse Institutes for Graduate Programs in the Northeast. 

    There were 15 or 16 graduate programs involved in the grant. The Institutes were designed to take on cutting edge topics in psychiatric nursing. It was a wonderful opportunity to think through new trends in psychiatric nursing. Much networking with leaders in that specialty was done during that time. 

aShe was fortunate to have a facilitation and understanding Department Chairperson, Rhetaugh Dumas, who was mindful of her career development (She was the Principal Investigator of the grant imanaged). 

aThe faculty at Yale took their work very seriously and that really had a transforming effect on me. It helped her to take her work seriously and to become engaged with new developments in the field.

Readiness for Teaching

    There was no great push in that environment to get a doctorate; but there was a great push to do research and to publish. she subsequently got a doctorate at a Big Ten University and found that environment more concerned with making sure that you did all the right things on the way to the doctorate. 

    In some ways the Yale environment had the notion that you were accomplished and expected you to go forth and do scholarship. It was an environment full of great expectations that has direct consequences for her thinking today. 

    She is big on the importance of socialization. We sometimes do not challenge people enough, simply expect them to perform, and sort of run with it. Sometimes people surprise you in their capabilities if you stop fretting about what they can do.

    When she was a master's student, there was the option, in addition to your clinical major, to also choose a functional area. It was possible to combine teaching and research so she took a clinical research course and a teaching course. 

    The professor in the education course was an educational psychologist and she was probably his most difficult student. It was the least good grade she earned in her master's program because she found pedagogy extremely boring, and formulaic. She knew learning was not a formal process. 

    It was engaging people in the possibilities of their field and in their work. She thinks she might have been too young for that course. 

    She was still at the level of engaging students, while that course was aimed at the particulars of putting together a curriculum and lesson plans. she understood you needed some planning and ought to know what you were doing in class; but she found the course focused too much on pedagogy and not enough on the meaning of the subject matter. 

    She must admit that she was a difficult pupil and did not show good will. What were driving her work were the development of clinical research and the excitement of the clinical field. So, she found disconnect between the stilted nature of the pedagogy and the dynamic nature of what we were teaching. 

    Clinical teaching made use of process recordings and reflective thinking about what was going on with patients, and that was disconnected. Most of what the professor said pedagogically equated teaching with lecturing. 

    Even his model for teaching about teaching was not relevant to how she thought she was going to teach.

Training For Teaching

    She regards Virginia Henderson as her mentor, but she did not mentor her in ways currently considered mentoring. A mentor typically gives you tips, helps you with socialization, gives advice, recommends you for opportunities, and helps you move to the next level. 

    That was not the way Virginia Henderson helped me. She helped her because she was open and interested in young people. She became a friend, saw what She did, and wrote chapter 49 for the last edition of The Principles and Practices of Nursing. 

    We started working on that at least 8 years before it was in print. To see her thoroughness and her requirements for scholarship was enlightening. She remembers giving her her chapter on the pain experience, which was a new chapter in the book. 

    Previous editions had not focused on that topic, and her master's study had been on pain management. She remembers getting the chapter done on time. 

    And while she waited for other chapters to come in, she would regularly say to me, “Do you want to update it?” she thought she was finished and did not want to do anything more. 

    She would keep after her to expand her work to include the latest literature and theories. She came to understand that she was a masterful individual, and she was the kind of thorough scholar she should aspire to be.

    When she talks about mentoring, she thinks about it broadly. It is anything from a formal mentoring program to informal coaching/advising/counseling. She believes one has an obligation to facilitate the learning of subsequent generations. 

    When a person is in a formal education program, he/She learns to read the lines. Mentoring and socialization experiences help one to read between the lines. The latter typically involves information that is not part of a formal education process. 

    Students and new faculty need this type of mentoring. Schools of Nursing should be communities of learning, which means that everyone in that organization is learning and confronting what they do not know and need to get better at. 

    A learning environment is one that is nurturing, and helpful in moving its members through key career transitions. Her belief is that even curmudgeons have an obligation to mentor because that is part of what it means to be a professional in a community of learning. 

    There is a whole literature on mentoring that is much more specific and talks about the components of formal mentoring programs. She believes it is equally important to encourage all to have a broad commitment to facilitate transitions and development of new generations.

Developing as A Teacher

    Her first position was as an instructor in psychiatric mental health nursing, teaching graduate students. She was in her twenties and what she remembers most vividly was the fact that she had a number of students who were older than she was. 

    She was concerned about developing her own authority and style as a teacher, but she was relating to people who had considerably more life experience. Over time, she did adjust and got over being self-conscious, sort of the “imposter phenomenon” where you think your ignorance and ineptness is always on the verge of being exposed. 

    She was actually the youngest member of the faculty for probably 2 or 3 years. Yale School of Nursing was then a youthful enterprise and many of us felt like pioneers; that sense of being in an exciting place went a long way in easing the awkwardness. 

    In the 1960s, you were unique if you had a master's degree and were expected to go forth and do good things. She handled many of her own anxieties and became part of that overall learning community by just talking to people who were more experienced than she was. 

    She would stop by and chat with Virginia Henderson and others who were enlarged in their research. We would talk about a broad array of things. It was a time of listening to their thinking. The enrichment of our talks gave her confidence, and a sense of where she was headed, and where she wanted her students to be headed.

    She would say that her next trans formative period of change came after she earned a doctorate in developmental psychology, which complemented her background as a psychiatric nurse.

    She obtained the PhD in 1978 and her first position afterwards were at Indiana University School of Nursing where she was hired to develop a doctoral program in psychiatric nursing. She arrived in the fall when the first doctoral students matriculated. 

    They took core requirements the first semester, and the first course in the psychiatric nursing major was to begin in the second semester. She went on to develop all of the 15 credits in psychiatric-mental health nursing just one semester before teaching them. 

    In the beginning, she also wound up being the main person delivering those 15 credit hours.Designating a sequence of doctoral courses right after completing a doctorate was a challenge. 

    The sequence was expected to prepare students to be able to do a really high quality dissertation in an area of concern to psychiatric mental health nursing. 

    At that point, she had done a great deal of broad reading about graduate education and the philosophy of science. She had already had experience with training grants, because she had written her own training grant for her doctoral program, which enabled her to get 2 years of support from NIMH. 

    Indiana University had already obtained a training grant for the doctoral program in psychiatric mental health nursing and she put the flesh on the bones, which she did with the help of a lot of experts. She has always been interested in effective people, figuring out how and why they are effective. 

    She looked at what was good practice in education and psychiatric nursing, what prepared one to develop a program of research, and then tried to do a replication.

Give Fifteen Credits of Doctoral Study

    She had definite ideas about what should be included in the courses. There had been 14 years between when she earned her master's degree and doctoral degree. By this time, she had written several articles and two books and had grantsmanship experiences, so she had been productive and arrived full of ideas. 

    The most important thing that she kept in mind in designing the courses was that she did not want any student to get to the point of dissertation unprepared. No one should ever get to her or his dissertation and say, “Now, what will she work on?” 

    We would have failed completely if students were not prepared for the dissertation. So, that was the driving theme of the 15 credits.

    The first 3-credit course focused on the history of psychiatric-mental health nursing, current trends, and broad concepts. If a person was being prepared to be a leader in psychiatric mental health nursing, He/She should be knowledgeable about the past and have a sense of where the specialty is headed. 

    The main assignment was that the students had to come to terms with what subject matter they were interested in studying for their dissertation. They had to do a critical review of the literature in that area, which could also serve as the literature review part of the dissertation. 

    If everything went well in that course, students would be well on their way to completing the first chapter of the dissertation and would have developed the ability to do a critical review of the literature. Students read articles on what it meant to do a good critical review. 

    The course sort of loosened up the student's thinking in understanding the practice problems that needed to be addressed.

    In the second 3-credit course, students had to specify the phenomenon they were going to study, explore it further for key concepts, and figure out the theoretical underpinnings that would guide their future work. 

    For example, one student interested in family adaptation to childhood epilepsy immersed herself in models of family adaptation and attitude theory because she was interested in how attitudes shaped behaviors and adaptation.

    In the third 3-credit course, students built on the work of the previous course and planned 6 credits of internship. The internship had two aims. 

    Students were expected to implement and evaluate an intervention, and they were also expected to do some formal pilot work for the dissertation (eg, testing the validity of an instrument never before used with this specific patient population). 

    In order to do the pilot work, students had to go through all the clinical and research clearances, a process which was both time consuming and a great learning experience.

    After completing these 15 credits, students then took 9-18 hours of dissertation credit. She is particularly proud of the fact that all of her dissertation students met her criteria for academic success, which is that they all presented their work at professional meetings and published their dissertation findings. 

    At least half of the people whom she advised are now fellows in the American Academy of Nursing. She is very proud of their continuing success.

Comfortable As a Teacher

    Early on when she was doing clinical instruction with students at the Yale Psychiatric Institute, She changed the clinical experience from a model where the instructor sat waiting for students to have problems, to one where students managed patients and the instructor helped them use the resources of the setting in addressing problems. 

    We relied on process recordings to help students think differently about ways of looking at what people were saying. The saving grace in both practice and research for her was that she has always been somewhat logical even before she had great skill. 

    She was good at sorting out problems and thinking through approaches. When she was a fledgling teacher, there were no mentoring programs. Today, at least if a person came to her school, they would have mentoring as a junior faculty member and access to an array of both research and teaching opportunities.


    Juggling work and family has been a challenge. She is married with children and grandchildren. For 12% years, she commuted 125 miles round trip. She has not lived and worked in the same community as her husband for 26 years. 

    And, thankfully, she married to someone who does not think this is a peculiar thing to do. When asked how she has managed, she cannot offer any answers. She managed these challenges differently in different decades. 

    She made different decisions in different decades because it made sense. She could never have been University Dean of Indiana University School of Nursing with children still living at home with all the commuting and everything else. 

    During the intense years of parenting, she held positions that allowed her to set some boundaries regarding her availability, which was not the case as dean. Juggling is difficult, but she have also turned that experience into an as set. 

    She probably does more talks now about career development at different stages than anything else. In those talks, she reminds the audience that there are no career opportunities in nursing that you have only once. 

    Nursing is rich with opportunities. She encourages people to think through the fit between where they are in their personal lives and where they are career wise. There is no one right way to handle living with contradictions; one of her books focused on the contradictions she has experienced as “a married feminist.” 

    I've actually used her own experience with “juggling” as a spring board for analyzing the growth and development struggles many women encounter, because these explorations fit with her professional identity as a psychiatric nurse.

Memorable Teaching Moments

    She remembers many awkward moments, but cannot think of a specific embarrassing situation in the classroom. She can give you her favorite story of being an after dinner speaker. They wanted her to talk for an hour, which is not a wise thing to do after dinner. 

    They seated her next to a man who was head of the Medical Center and who was near retirement. As soon as she started talking, he started sleeping. His snoring was not modest; it was loud and sawing. 

    To add to the situation, as he snored, he shifted back and forth and people were worried that he would fall off the chair. She talked for the requested hour; the applause at the end woke him up. He said goodbye on leaving adding, “You know that is the very best talk I've ever heard on women's health.”

    Another situation was an after dinner speech honoring a retiring vice president for nursing. It was a good crowd and the wine flowed. As she talked, people did not stop talking among themselves. 

    There were times when she would actually say, “ Shhhhhh , they paid her to give this speech, and if you listen hard some of it is even funny” They would quiet down, then begin talking again. 

    She kept shortening her remarks to get through the evening as quickly as possible. Thankfully, wine isn't served in the classroom, but evening classes can make for sleepy students!

Rewarding Aspects

    Being University Dean of the Indiana University School of Nursing provided her with wonderful opportunities to facilitate teaching, and that has been enormously rewarding, even more so than her personal success as a teacher. 

    On the Indianapolis campus, we developed a Center for Teaching and Lifelong Learning, and we established new awards to honor master teachers and mentors statewide.

    Every time a faculty member or graduate of the School gets into the American Academy of Nursing or receives some other honor, it is personal for me. That her colleagues are successful, particularly when they are honored for their teaching, she find enormously rewarding.     

    Her line used to be l want everybody in the building to be famous. One of the things she regularly asked in the annual review of the people who reported to her directly was. “What can she do to facilitate your career?” her goal was to make sure faculty had as much career success as possible because that would reflect on our school, and students would want to attend.

Least Rewarding Aspects

    When she thinks of her whole career, she thinks the last years of being University Dean were the “least rewarding.” That was the case because the things that give her the most satisfaction were not as possible. 

    During the years she served as University Dean, she necessarily became less engaged in her own field, because her time was taken in representing the School to the rest of the University and the larger community. 

    Her job was to keep the resources coming into the School of Nursing by helping the community understand that the School of Nursing was a treasure and having the University care about the School. 

    She worked to make sure the President, Chancellor, and influential people with resources in the community understood that the School of Nursing was wonderful. So, she was heavily engaged in many activities that do not have immediate outcomes attached to them, or that do not provide the pleasure of associating with other nurses. 

    You do a number of things that are “friend” rising in the hope that friend raising will eventually lead to fund raising.

Maintaining Excellence

    Keeping up with your field is basic to maintaining excellence. One way to keep up is to teach. She taught a course every year that she was University Dean. This was very important because when you don't use skills you get scared to use them. 

    One of her policies as University Dean was to say that no one was 100% in administration. She has seen people become administrators and do not teach, and then when they leave administration, they do not have a role in the school. 

    They've lost the level of mastery necessary for teaching. She thinks it is very important, as an educational administrator, that one retains moral authority. Moral authority is kept when you continue to do, although not at the same level as other people, what other people are expected to do. 

    If an administrator is telling faculty to research, publish, and teach and they never see you do any of that, you really do lose credibility over time. People believe that you do not walk the talk. Keeping up with the growing knowledge base and doing presentations and publications are terribly important. 

    Within 1 year of being at Indiana University, she became an administrator and was a Department Chair, then Associate Dean of research, and then University Dean of the school. So, how to keep up excellence along the way is something she has struggled with

    In the last 2 years of her career in administration, she got into so many things that keeping up became more difficult. For a time, she didn't publish anything professionally, which bothered her enormously. 

    She did publish “think pieces” in our school's magazine, wrote grant proposals, and got increasingly involved in leadership positions in the community and in the university. She realized that if she worked all the time, it was getting impossible to do anything that was beyond what she had to do for the job. 

    That was one reason why she decided to leave administration. After 23 years of academic administration, she decided that she wanted to do other things.

    During the majority of those 23 years, she combined teaching and research in several ways. She developed a Women's Health course, which she taught for years. Then she wrote an institutional research training grant, for which she served as Program Director. 

    We added a course to promote research socialization and anyone who was on the training grant had to take this course. She taught it annually for 13 years. 

    The formal goals of the course were not unlike those of the first course in the psychiatric mental health nursing program she had earlier developed, but the real goal was to inure the students to failure. By the end of the course, students knew that failure was to be expected and dealt with. 

    To be successful in a career, the student had to learn to become like those sock ' emclowns that bounce back up when you punch them (the “punch” typically is being told that your work is not yet. the incarnation of perfection). All students were expected to put together a 3-year statement regarding their research goals. 

    Students regularly said that to get the degree was their goal. her response was always that if the only thing we did was to give students a doctorate, we failed. We wanted additional outcomes along the way. Students also wrote a contract in which they customized their objectives. 

    If students were at the beginning of a program, they might decide to do a critical review of literature. Or, this might be the course where they wrote a grant proposal to obtain funding for their dissertation research. 

    One of the things students often did was to think through whether there was something they had done in their doctoral studies that could be turned into a publishable paper. She urged the class to aim for outcomes and not just a degree, for example, refereed presentations/publications.

    We even role played job interviews, particularly the art of self presentation. These days, a leader should have favorite websites. If you have a research idea and you are going forward to get funding, you should know the strategic plan of the funding agency you plan to approach. 

    If the National Institute on Aging has priorities, then you as a geriatric nurse ought to know about those areas. Guest lecturers in her course were consequently asked to talk about their favorite websites. Related to that, she have found it to be effective in teaching people to handle failure to have guest lecturers discuss the failures they've experienced. 

    Students typically look at the successful and assume they've always been successful. The successful, however, are people who got a score on a grant application, knew that they had to redo most of the application as a result of the feedback and they maybe even received a worse score the next time, and then redid that one too. 

    If you think anyone who is successful was just successful without hassles. Chances are you simply do not know them well enough. What doctoral students need to understand is how really successful people developed a program of study, how they went about focusing on an area, and how they then worked to become successful over time.

Advice for Teachers

    There are two pieces of advice she would give. One is to really confront the notion of who is the “real nurse.” We still have residual stereotypes that shape the whole field. For example, if you are not at the bedside, you are assumed not to be a real nurse. 

    Therefore, someone who is an educator may not be considered to be a real nurse. New teachers should take this stereo-type and turn it around. What this requires is to see the connection between what you are doing, that is, teaching, and real nursing. 

    She used to take great umbrage when somebody would say to her as dean, “Tell her about when you used to be a real nurse.” She would fluff up her feathers and go on, at great length, to tell them about the connection between what she was doing right now and what real nursing was about. 

    There was a direct relationship between what she was doing and whether there would be a workforce of prepared nurses in the United States. We are more and more becoming knowledge workers. 

    New teachers should understand that they are an important part of mainstream nursing. The second thing is that you never know what influence you have on students. In a spirited discussion in class, you can have fun, end the course, and have enjoyed it. 

    In teaching there is a lot of immediate satisfaction, but there are some satisfactions that you are not prepared for and they are even more wonderful. What touched her most was when she was at a professional meeting and a former student told her how she had influenced her life. 

    This individual had been chatty in class, but did not know how to develop her ideas in depth. In her final evaluation, she told her she was a fuzzy thinker. It turned out that she was on drugs, and, at the time, thought it did not show. 

    The fact that she told her she was a fuzzy thinker made her realize that it did show, and that was the beginning of her recovery. She have forever more been empowered to tell people they are fuzzy thinkers when that is the case. She believes most nurses who are educators have a few stories like that.

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