Application of Coaching In Nursing Education

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 Concept of Coaching In Nursing Education

Application of Coaching In Nursing Education

Whats Is Coaching,Coaching Application In Nursing Education,Impact of Coaching In Nursing Education,Benefits of Coaching In Nursing Education.

Whats Is Coaching

    Coaching is an art where a coach uses conversation to create an environment that facilitates moving toward goals in a fulfilling manner (Timothy, 2000). The coaching process is supported and guided by nursing theories (Dossey, Luck, & Schaub, 2014) and theories from social sciences including the trans-theoretical model of behavioral change, motivational interviewing, and appreciative inquiry (Moore & Tschannen Moran, 2010). 

    These theories create a foundation for the development of the collaborative coaching relationship such as reflection, therapeutic presence, powerful questions, enhanced listening, formative feedback, and summarization. The client is defined as the expert in the coaching process that is time limited, and involves creating awareness and moving to action (O'Grady, 2011, p. 85).

Coaching Application In Nursing Education

    Coaching in nursing education applies to both the specialty of nurse coach and a practice skill. A nurse coach is defined as a registered nurse who integrates coaching competencies into any setting or specialty area of practice to facilitate a process of change that assists individuals or groups to realize potential (Hess et al, 2013). The nurse coaching practice aligns with the nursing process including assessment establishing the relationship and identifying readiness for change, diagnosis identifying opportunities and concerns; outcome establishing client centered goals; plan creating the structure of the coaching sessions; implementation empowering clients to reach goals; and evaluation assisting clients to determine how well goals were achieved (Hess et al, 2013). 

    Coaching skills include open ended questions, effective listening. and providing feedback to promote learning, self-awareness, and action (Glasgow, Weinstock, Lachman, Suplee, & Dreher, 2009), Rather than telling students what to do, the educator as coach uses conversation skills and therapeutic presence to empower students to formula and move toward goals. The role of a coach is more evocative than didactic, as the educator facilitates the student's empowerment by assisting him or her to discover strengths, identify values, set goals, and decide on action (Hess et al. 2013). 

    Coaching has also been introduced as an innovative leadership strategy for new nursing academic administrators (Glasgow et al, 2009) and for nursing leaders seeking to improve practice and build skills (O'Grady, 2011). Effectiveness of the educator's coaching skills relies on continuous self-development through self-reflection. self-assessment, self-evaluation, and self-care (Dossey et al., 2014), Tobin (2004) identifies coaching as one of the seven roles related to mentoring. Both coaching and mentoring can be used simultaneously with nursing students, but there are distinct differences. 

    As opposed to the time limited structure of coaching, mentoring often spans several years. It includes a teaching-learning process, encouragement to grow professionally and personally, and formal evaluation (Donner & Wheeler, 2009).

Impact of Coaching In Nursing Education

    Formerly popular in sports, coaching moved into organizations in the 1960s. During the 1990s, coaching models began to appear in nursing administration, clinical practice, and education. In 2013, the coach role was endorsed by the American Nurses Association and 20 other professional nursing organizations with defined scope and competencies, standardized preparation/ supervision process, and a recognized board certification examination (Hess et al., 2013). Educators are in a pivotal role to apply coaching strategies to the self-development of students in the classroom, nursing leaders in academia and clinical practice, or clients in the clinical setting. 

    Coaching goals may include the acquisition of new skills in the clinical setting, leadership development, lifestyle modifications, or chronic disease management. Applications are only limited by the nurse educator's imagination and skill. The principles and acts of coaching. present in nursing education for years, are reflected in the words of exemplary teachers (Smith & Fitzpatrick, 2006) who were asked to give advice to new educators. Their recommendations on teaching as changing behavior included engaging in reflection, facilitating growth, developing self-awareness and understanding, and inviting feedback. Thus, each of those recognized educators highlighted the importance of foundational coaching skills and indirectly alluded to the coaching process for behavior change.

Benefits of Coaching In Nursing Education

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2010) has recommended that nurses practice at the full extent of their education and training, and that education be a seamless progression partnering with health care professionals to redesign the country's health care. Coaching, both the art and specialty, aligns with these national goals. Educators can benefit from the development and refinement of coaching skills, and students can benefit from educators who model coaching skills.

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