Concept of Education and Training in Nursing Education

Afza.Malik GDA

 Concept of Education and Training in Nursing Education

Concept of Education and Training in Nursing Education

According to the Bureau of Labor,Nursing Education Diploma,Training vs Educating In Nursing Education,Shifting to a New Era in Diploma Nursing Education,Understanding Diploma Nursing Education Today,Associate Degree Nursing Education.

According to the Bureau of Labor

    Statistics (2006a), rising elderly populations, in-home medical technologies, and patient preference for home health care will increase the number of practical nurses needed in this area. As a result, one can expect that practical nursing will continue to be an integral part of the fabric of nursing education and nursing practice.

Nursing Education Diploma

    “Your own first steps toward a nurse's skill and toward the coveted nurse's cap,” Miss Reamer said, “Will be classes. But not for long.” They [student nurses] would learn the hospital routine gradually on the wards, then more and more, until each student would be responsible for her own patients” (Wells, 1943, p. 29).

Training vs Educating In Nursing Education

    The quote above is from Cherry Ames, a fictional series of books about nurses that enamored many, encouraged the pursuit of nursing careers, and indeed reflected nursing diploma programs of that time in nursing education's history. Diploma nursing (originally known as “hospital nursing”) began during the latter part of the 19th century with a growth in hospitals. Knowledge of a sepsis partially spurred hospitals' growth and precipitated a demand for more nurses. Training of hospital nurses at this time was based on an apprenticeship model where nursing students provided service (direct patient care) in exchange for a few educational lectures, room and board, and a monthly allowance (King, 1987).

    The apprenticeship model flourished because it offered women an opportunity for a vocation, it improved care of the sick, and decreased the cost of nursing service in hospitals while student nurses provided patient care services for a minimal allowance (Bullough & Bullough, 1978). Despite the benefits of the apprenticeship model, it underwent criticism from nursing education leaders. Goldmark (1923) in particular emphasized that the training needs of students and the service needs of hospitals were incongruent. She wrote that when “the needs of the sick must predominate; the needs of education must yield” (Goldmark, p. 195). 

    In other words, Goldmark argued that the hospital training of nurses was unbalanced. Training in the care of children, for example, was relinquished if students were needed to care for patients on the surgical ward. Similarly, May Ayres Burgess published a report in 1928 titled Nurses, Patients, and Pocketbooks (later known as the Burgess Report) that argued that within the apprenticeship model, students' patient assignments were based on the hospital's needs rather than on the educational needs of the students.

    To balance the academic needs of nursing students with their need for clinical experiences, Dr. Richard Olding Beard advocated for university education for nursing students. He contended that university education would eliminate the inconsistency between the hospital's service needs and the educational needs of students. In 1909 Beard began a nursing program at the University of Minnesota. 

    This program is often heralded as the first baccalaureate nursing program. However, it closely resembled diploma education because, even though nursing students met university standards for admission and coursework, they were required to work 56 hours a week on the hospital ward (Bullough & Bullough, 1984).

Shifting to a New Era in Diploma Nursing Education

    Following Dr. Beard's efforts, the National League for Nursing Education (NLNE) made numerous attempts to redesign diploma nursing education programs. In 1917, 1919, 1927, and 1937 the NLNE published Standard Curriculum for dents' time working on the ward and to increase their education by offering 3 years of course work in the sciences and clinical experiences caring for diverse populations (eg, medical surgical, pediatric, and obstetric patients). 

    The work of Beard, the NLNE, and other reports on the state of nursing education did contribute to restructuring diploma nursing education. Stewart (1943), in fact, related that these efforts better informed the public about the state of nursing education, promoted experiments with new models of nursing education, and encouraged reform in schools of nursing (pp. 182–183).

    During the middle of the 20th century, diploma nursing programs continued to thrive, and other reports such as Nursing Schools at the Mid-Century, compiled by West and Hawkins and published in 1950, promoted high standards in diploma nursing programs. Nonetheless, changes in health care such as rapid advances in medical technology and the expansion of knowledge in treatments for diseases required nurses to have sound theoretical preparation (Melosh, 1982). These changes meant a decline in hospital-based diploma programs and the beginning of a new era in nursing education where education would occur predominantly in colleges and universities.

Understanding Diploma Nursing Education Today

    As of 2006 there were only about 60 diploma programs in the United States, with most of them located in the northeast (National League for Nursing [NLN], 2006). Hospitals that continue to support diploma programs maintain this educational option because these programs supply the nurses needed in their hospitals, they provide a geographically accessible program for some students, they offer a nursing degree in a short length of time, and they often offer tuition remission .

    To meet the educational needs of diploma students, many of these programs collaborate with colleges and universities to offer students options to obtain associate and baccalaureate degrees. Additionally, it is important to note that despite the reasons for the decline of diploma programs mentioned earlier, some studies suggest that diploma nurses are as competent in research, leadership, and critical thinking as graduates from other undergraduate nursing programs (Clinton, Murrells, & Robinson, 2005). Thus, for now it seems that diploma programs, though having experienced a turbulent history, are persisting and will continue to be a valuable asset to the nursing profession.

Associate Degree Nursing Education

    “Every story in the mosaic of history has a beginning, a cast of characters, a set of social circumstances, and its own momentum. The development of a new, two year program for educating professional nurses during the years just after World War II is no exception” (Haase, 1990, p. 1).

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