Faulty Development and Use of Simulators In Nursing Education

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Use of Simulators in Faculty Development Program

Faulty Development and Use of Simulators In Nursing Education

What Is Faculty Development,Implementation of Faculty Development In Nursing Education,Outcomes of Using Simulators,Collaborative Use of Simulators In Nursing Education.

What Is Faculty Development 

    Faculty development is described as a tool for improving educational competencies necessary for teachers to promote academic excellence (Wilkerson & Irby, 1998). The goal of faculty development is to empower teachers to stand out in their role as educators and encourage lifelong learning for both themselves and their students. Faculty development for nursing educators using high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) as a teaching technology is essential.

Implementation of Faculty Development In Nursing Education

    A paradigm shift in nursing education has evolved from teacher centric to student centric (Cannon Diehl, 2009; Drummond Young et al., 2010). Over the past 10 years, nursing academicians have responded to this paradigm change by embracing new evolving technologies HFPS is one of those technologies. Patient simulators are being purchased with the hope that nursing educators will embrace the new technology: however, many are not prepared to utilize this teaching strategy for instruction. 

    This presents a challenge since there is no standard curriculum for teaching with this innovative pedagogy (Jeffries, 2008). With the introduction and expansion of the learner-centric methodology of simulation in the academic and clinical arenas, nursing educators need to acquire the knowledge edge and skills to teach with simulation in order to deliver robust experiential education Jeanette, Parker, Nadeau, Pelayo, & Cook, 2012: Jeffries, 2005, Shellenbarger & Edwards, 2012). It is important to remember that an educator who has expertise in his or her respective field becomes a novice when he or she begins using HFPS as a teaching strategy (Gaba, 2007).

    Benner's novice to expert theory (Benner, 1984) was the framework used by the California Simulation Alliance to develop a simulation collaborative for faculty enhancement using an apprenticeship program. In this model, each level of competence has a specific methodology focusing on learning objectives that move nurse educators through the various stages of Benner's theory. This program has produced many nursing faculty with the expertise to teach with simulation and has been replicated throughout the nursing simulation community (Waxman & Telles, 2009). 

    In addition, Jeffries (2008) proposed the Simulations Take Educator Preparation (STEP) plan to help educators realize the important aspects of teaching with simulation: standardized materials, train the trainer, encourage the development of a simulation design team, and plan to coordinate and implement simulation activities.As a result of the growing importance of simulation in nursing education, a multi center, multi modal study to investigate the use of simulation was conducted by a partnership between the National League for Nursing (NLN) and the Laerdal Corporation. 

    The resulting publication, Simulation in Nursing Education: From Conceptualization to Evaluation, is an excellent resource that outlines the criteria for nursing educators to produce high quality educational experiences for students using simulation (Jeffries.2007). A virtual Simulation Innovation and Resource Center (SIRC) offers web-based courses in scenario design, debriefing and guided reflection, teaching and learning strategies, technology, curriculum integration, and simulation center design (Bentley & Seaback, 2011). Both the book and website provide standardized resources for nursing educators teaching with simulation. 

    The Society of Simulation in Healthcare (2012) developed a curriculum and assessment for simulation educators to achieve a Certification as a Healthcare Simulation Educator (CHSE) In addition, attendance at local, regional national, and international simulation conferences and workshops, as well as learning from colleagues with collaborative one-on-one educational sessions, are useful strategies for educators to increase their knowledge base for teaching with simulation (Shellenbarger & Edwards, 2012)

Outcomes of Using Simulators

    The central tenet of clinical simulation is the ability to create a safe, realistic learning environment where students have the opportunity to apply their acquired knowledge, practice nursing, teamwork, and communication skills and apply clinical decision making under the guidance of well-trained simulation educators (Jeffries, 2008; Nehring, Wexler, Hughes & Greenwell, 2013). The aforementioned educational methods discussed provide opportunities to enhance the educational expertise for nurse educators using simulation. 

    However, competencies for simulation educators, a universal language, and a standardized curriculum are required as simulation is integrated into nursing curricula. The learning curve to become proficient in simulation is individual and must be constantly honed (Jeffries, 2008) In order for nursing faculty to embrace 362 innovative pedagogy, faculty developments must be ongoing and supported. 

Collaborative Use of Simulators In Nursing Education

    Collaboration with inter-professional partners in the clinical setting and academia is essential for the future direction of simulation-based learning activities. There is a paucity of literature describing the competencies necessary for health care educators and most notably a lack of research for the competencies for simulation-based nursing educators. There is a need for evidence based research that focuses on faculty development needs as well as curriculum development and evaluation of this pedagogy (Jeffries, 2008). It would be optimal for nursing and other health care educators to lead this initiative.

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