Human Patient and Simulator Use for Active Engagement of Nursing Students

Nurses Educator 2

Active Engagement of Nursing Students and Human Patient and Simulator

Human Patient and Simulator Use for Active Engagement of Nursing Students

Human Patient In Nursing Education,Use of Simulators for Nursing Education,Effective Use of Human Patient In Nursing Education,Outcome of Using Human Patient for Nursing Education.

Human Patient In Nursing Education

    Simulation is a pedagogy method used to improve, promote, and actively engage students in a realistic clinical situation using a human patient, or a computerized patient simulator to mimic real-life clinical situations Jeffries, 2005), Human patient simulations are a forum for actively engaging nursing students in critical thinking and application of knowledge.

Use of Simulators for Nursing Education

    Simulation has taken on many forms over the numerous years it has been used in nursing education (Nehring & Lashley, 2009). Human patient simulation and the use of high fidelity technology have added a broader dimension to simulation use in nursing education. The long history of simulation in nursing education has included the use of anatomical models such as jointed skeletons; task trainers such as models of arms and legs used to practice injections and first aid; and low-fidelity patient simulators. Fidelity denotes the extent to which the entity imitates reality (Nehring & Lashley, 2009). 

    Jeffries (2008) suggests that high-fidelity patient simulations (HFPS) can be used as innovative approaches to nursing education at a time when the world has a shortage of nursing educators, by allowing students clinical opportunities to learn without compromising a patient's security. She suggests more research should be completed with reliable methods to test skill acquisition and learning outcomes assessment, so as to increase the evidence used to support its use as a learning strategy. Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, and Day (2010) found that by engaging students in active learning, they are more readily able to recall and apply knowledge when it is needed later. 

    The most appropriate theoretical framework for this type of educational intervention is the Nursing Education Simulation Framework (NESF) developed by the National League for Nursing (NLN). The conceptual framework allows one to design, implement, and evaluate teaching strategies using simulations within the nursing educational setting Jeffries, 2005). It is made up of five components that are as follows: best practices in education, student factors, teacher factors, simulation design, and outcome measures. By including best practices in education, faculty focus on how students learn and provide the means that optimizes learning and critical thinking skills. 

    Student factors include the importance of being responsible for learning, being self-directed, and being motivated. Teacher factors include providing faculty with the training and technological support they need in order to design and implement the new learning strategies. Simulation design should support course goals, learning outcomes, and skill competencies. Faculty should also consider the complexity, fidelity, cues, and debriefing that will be implemented within the learning exercise. Outcome measures are focused on student critical-thinking skills gained from the simulation experience and the translation of theoretical concepts.

Effective Use of Human Patient In Nursing Education

    Simulation in human patients provides for a safe method of actively engaging students in clinical scenarios using HFPS as innovative approaches to nursing education. Opportunities for students to develop and advance their clinical knowledge and skills are critical. HFPS provides innovative approaches to nursing education (Jeffries, 2008). Simulation provides a valuable intermediate step to preparing nursing students to care for patients in a clinical setting Oliver, Ambrose, and Wynn (2011) integrated a mental health problem of depression with suicidal idealization with management of an adult health postoperative surgical patient simulation. 

    The HFPS was beneficial in identifying students' unwillingness to explore feelings they were uncomfortable with and there- fore allowed faculty to assist students in improving communication while managing a depressed obese patient on a medical surgical floor (Chiver, Ambrose, & Wynn, 2011 ). The use of human patient simulation has become an integral part of nursing education. Simulation is useful in both under-graduate and graduate education.

Outcome of Using Human Patient for Nursing Education

    Human patient simulations serve as a valuable and practical method to assist students in learning to work as a team and problem solve through consensus building, Faculty should be provided with the needed training and technological support in order to successfully design and implement learning strategies using human patient simulation. Faculty development should include continuing education on design and development of scenarios that mimic clinical situations to improve critical thinking skills Faculty should be accountable for priming students on what to expect and how to prepare for the simulation experience; however, students need to be self directed and motivated to learn.

   Objectives should be determined and communicated in advance in regard to how simulation will be used for learning and for evaluation. Simulation is a positive and effective pedagogy to help students understand critical content and develop communication skills in nursing education. There is a need to continue research and add to the evidence to support student outcomes gained from the use of simulation in undergraduate and graduate nursing education.

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