Male Students Recruitment In Nursing Education

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Recruitment of Male Students In Nursing Education

Male Students Recruitment In Nursing Education

Recruitment And Retention of Men in Nursing,Male Gender and other Professions ,Selection of Male Students In Nursing Education and Its Impact,Need of Recruitment and Retention of Male Students In Nursing Education.

Recruitment And Retention of Men in Nursing

    Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting prospective students to a college. Retention is the ability of an institution to retain students through degree completion. Retention rate is the percentage of students who graduate compared to the number of students entering the program.

Male Gender and other Professions 

    Nursing lags behind other health professions in realizing gender parity (American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN), 2013). A more gender inclusive and balanced nursing workforce is important and imperative for our profession. The footings for this begin with changing the perception of the profession of nursing from a female oriented to a gender-neutral profession, in which men can thrive. Another important step is the review and possible redesign of the curriculum to ensure relevance to both male and female students. 

    Finally, implementing a male to male mentorship program and recruiting more men faculty are effective strategies to retain men in nursing (O'Lynn & Tranbarger, 2007). Consequently, the nursing program leadership will need an intentional approach for change documented as a strategic priority with assigned responsibility, accountability , and resources.Education administrators and faculty will need to make changes to retain men and increase nursing workforce gender diversity. 

    Historically, the ability for nursing education to recruit and retain more men in school has been problematic. The evidence from the literature is clear about this: Nursing education has not made a concerted effort to attract and retain men (MacWilliams, Schmidt, & Bleich, 2013; O'Lynn, 2013, Roth & Coleman, 2008; Villeneuve, 1994). More specifically, attrition of men in nursing school is 15% to 85% and is far greater for men compared to women (Gilchrist & Rector, 2007). One study found that men were six times more likely than women to fail a nursing course (O'Lynn & Tranbarger, 2007).

    Accrediting bodies for nursing programs (Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing: Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education) have focused their attention on diversity in accreditation standards. The AAMN has developed a recognition program, the Excellence in Nursing Education Environments Supportive of Men, which can assist schools with accreditation activities. The AAMN recognition program offers a data driven evidence-based methodology that nursing schools can implement to foster a gender-inclusive environment and retain male students at rates consistent with female students.

Selection of Male Students In Nursing Education and Its Impact

    The recruitment of men into nursing school and the retention of those students present major challenges. Several studies have revealed issues that affect recruitment and retention of men in nursing schools, including lack of awareness regarding the opportunities in nursing, nursing as a career choice for men (Bullough, 1994; Kelly, Shoemaker, & Steele, 1996; LaRocco, 2004 ); the traditionally feminine imagery of nursing (Evans, 1997, MacPhail, 1996; MacWilliams et al., 2013, Villeneuve, 1994); the image of men nurses as effeminate or homosexuals (MacWilliams et al., 2013 O'Lynn & Tranbarger, 2007; role stress (MacWilliams et al., 2013); questions of male touch (MacWilliams et al., 2013) questions. of men as caring, compassionate, and gentle (MacWilliams et al., 2013; Villeneuve, 1994); and the word nurse itself (Villeneuve, 1994).

    With the launch of the Future of Nursing Campaign for Action, the AAMN established the 20 x 20 Choose Nursing campaign as a national initiative to increase the percentage of men in nursing schools across the country to 20% by the year 2020 (AAMN, 2014) , Progress in this area is being demonstrated. The enrollment of men in nursing programs has essentially doubled from 6% in 1986 to 11.8% in 2011 (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2012). A more recent survey found that men in nursing school enrollment improved slightly to 14% in baccalaureate programs and 15% in both diploma and associate degree programs (National League for Nursing, 2013). 

Need of Recruitment and Retention of Male Students In Nursing Education

    Recruitment and retention of men in the nursing profession is essential. Men add value to patient care and outcomes, provide unique contributions as health care team members, and offer an expanded labor supply. Successful recruitment of men into nursing is dependent on a collaborative effort from the nursing profession, nursing schools, employers, government agencies, and marketers (O'Lynn & Tranbarger, 2007).

    Nursing education strategies worthy of consideration are as follows: 

(a) Make the recruitment and retention of men in the nursing school a strategic priority

(b) develop gender neutral policies and practices that promote balanced, gender inclusive educational experiences, textbooks, websites, and nursing-school brochures and advertising

(c) develop instructional designs that allow for diversity in learning preferences. Male nursing students often express a preference for learning activities that are hands on, kinesthetic, and task oriented. Other male students may find mildly competitive or peer directed activities as motivators for learning

(d) increase the number of male nursing faculty including adjuncts, instructors, advisers, and/or mentors

(e) use an evidence-based mentoring program for male students as well as providing them the opportunities to work with male nurses in the clinical setting

(f) include in the curriculum a balanced, accurate, historical perspective of the contributions of men to the nursing profession and their care and caring behaviors

(g) Reposition nursing as a gender-neutral profession, which has evolved to include significant clinical responsibilities over the past years

(h) educate middle-school and high-school guidance counselors regarding nursing career opportunities for their male students

(i) encourage the formation of, or active participation with, local chapters of the AAMN as this is the only organization for students and nurses with a singular purpose of fostering gender diversity through inclusion in nursing schools and the nursing profession.

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