Nursing Education and Challenge of High Risk Students

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 High Risk Students In Nursing Education

Nursing Education and Challenge of High Risk Students

Who are High risk students,Identification of High Risk Students,Identification of High Risk Students,Dealing With High Risk Students.

Who are High risk students

    High risk students are individuals who have limited social supports, resources, or cognitive abilities that add to their proclivity for poor academic performance or failure. High-risk students are academically disadvantaged and commonly characterized by their ethnic minority status, gender, socioeconomic status, levels of self-esteem, disability status. behavioral dysfunction, or prior academic performance (Egerton,1968; Jones & Watson, 1990)

Identification of High Risk Students

    The identification and allocation of resources to high-risk nursing students is central to retention, diversity, and development of future nurses. In the United States, there is a projected shortage of registered nurses that will be compounded by a growing cohort of older Americans who will require nursing care (Janiszewski Goodin, 2003). As a consequence of a shortage in registered nurses, the proportion of high risk students admitted to schools of nursing is proportionally on the rise. 

    For nursing educators, the early identification of high risk students is critical and necessary to optimize the congruence between the instructional methods and these students' learning needs to enhance their likelihood of academic success. As the numbers of high-risk nursing students increase, it is important for nurse educators to identify and support these students to ensure academic success, diversify the nursing workforce, and address the public health concerns regarding the shortage of registered nurses.

    There are a variety of methods that facilitate the early identification of high risk students. The evaluation of a student's risk for academic success usually entails the analysis of academic and nonacademic variables (Hopkins, 2008) Academic variables, such as standardized test scores and cumulative high-school grade point average (GPA), are used as indicators of a student's likelihood of academic success (Abrams & Jernigan, 1984; Hopkins, 2008). 

    Nonacademic variables, such as quality of the individual's high school education, self-efficacy, and levels of anxiety or stress, have also been examined as indicators of academic success. There are a variety of academic and nonacademic variables that are associated with the risk of poor academic performance and failure. Yet, research in this area continues to be focused on academic success (eg, passing the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses [NCLEX-RNL course grades, cumulative GPA), which limits the translation of this evidence to nursing practice outcomes.

Identification of High Risk Students

    There are three key points in understanding how to identify and support highrisk nursing students: 

(a) Early identification of high risk students requires a comprehensive evaluation of pre-admission characteristics, and the assessment of academic and nonacademic variables associated with academic success ( Grossbach & Kuncel , 2011; Hopkins, 2008).

(b) high-risk students may come from communities that are economically depressed, and may feel disenfranchised or stigmatized by others, which result in a lack of confidence, lower academic motivation, and a heightened propensity for academic failure (Schunk & Mullen, 2012 : Syed, Azmitia, & Cooper, 2011). Often high risk students will not seek out the support from faculty but can significantly benefit from additional educational, social, financial, emotional, and culturally sensitive support to promote academic success.

(c) effective strategies for high risk students have focused on self directed activities, congruence between instructional methods and learning styles, as well as formative feedback in a supportive climate (Lockie. Van Lanen, & Mc Gannon, 2013; Pizzolato, 2004, Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, & Salovey, 2012) . To date, there are no prevailing theoretical frameworks or strategies for early identification of high-risk students in nursing

Dealing With High Risk Students

    High risk students represent a significant challenge to nurse educators. With a projected estimate of a shortage of registered nurses, nurse educators must recognize high risk students early in their nursing education and provide evidence based strategies to enhance their academic success. Nurse educators who wish to conduct evaluations to identify high-risk students must have a sound understanding of their student population, as well as the academic and nonacademic variables that may have influence on their likelihood of academic success. 

    Attention to the definition of academic success varies significantly in nursing education. As highlighted by several studies, academic success and performance can be measured by an individual's performance in a fundamental nursing course, cumulative college GPA, or passing the NCLEX-RN examination. Strategies that enhance academic success among high-risk students should be initiated early, personalized, and provide holistic support.

    There is a significant need for longitudinal and interventional research to develop and test strategies for early identification and practices that fortify academic success among high-risk students. As nursing education research advances, examination of social determinants, cognitive processing, learning styles, experiential learning, coaching, and the use of interactive educational technologies hold significant promise to improve the learning outcomes of nursing students who are academically disadvantaged (Ashley & O'Neil , 1991; Lockie & Burke, 1999).

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