Nursing Education and Risk for Failure of Students

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Risk Factors Contribute In Students Failure 

Nursing Education and Risk for Failure of Students

What is Risk For Failure,Risk for Failure In Nursing Education,Factors Contributing In Risk for Failure.

What is Risk For Failure

    Students are at risk for failure when they do not meet course objectives or fulfill course requirements. If course objectives are not met and requirements are not met, the result is course failure. When successful completion of a course is required in order to progress in a program of study, failure may delay future coursework until the course is successfully repeated. Students may be at risk for failure at any time and in any type of educational program.

Risk for Failure In Nursing Education

    “Risk for failure” has implications for students enrolled in nursing programs both in their satisfactorily meeting course requirements and progressing through to complete a nursing program, as well as in their passing the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) at the completion of the program . Desirable outcomes are that students bet retained in the program to complete all coursework satisfactorily, to progress through their program to completion in a timely manner, and finally to pass the NCLEX preferably on the first attempt. 

    Undesirable outcomes include student attrition, delayed program completion, and lack of success on the NCLEX Voluntary attrition occurs when students elect to drop out of the program for personal reasons or because they are unsure about nursing as a career choice. Involuntary attrition occurs when students are dismissed from the program due to failure in nursing coursework. Failure in the NCLEX on the first attempt requires additional testing and delays employment as a nurse. 

    For students, the consequences of failure either in course work or in the NCLEX can include disappointment, frustration, lack of confidence in their ability to be successful on subsequent NCLEX attempts, and a sense of having wasted financial resources, time, and energy completing coursework (O'Donnell, 2009).The nursing program is affected by student. attrition with empty program seats and lost tuition revenue. Furthermore, if a student does not pass the NCLEX, a decreased pass rate occurs, which may impact the program's reputation and accreditation (Hadenfeldt, 2012).

    Intrinsic and extrinsic variables such as students age and ethnicity, educational background, goal determination, family responsibilities, external support sources, and financial resources may influence the student's chances of success or put them at risk for failure (Hadenfeldt. 2012: Jeffreys, 2004; Shelton, 2003). Younger or traditional students (defined as 24 years of age or younger) may better be able to focus on educational pursuits with fewer interruptions due to family and employment responsibilities, and they may have retained study skills developed in high school. Nontraditional students. 

    On the other hand, they may draw from a wealth of life experiences to overcome obstacles and they may be highly motivated to accomplish the tasks needed to be successful (Jeffreys 2004, Shelton, 2003). Ethnically diverse students may face unique family, language, and cultural barriers. Because these students are often first generation college students, family members may not understand the need to provide relief from or assistance with responsibilities so that students have time to study (Gardner, 2005), Knowledge and confidence acquired through success in previous educational coursework, and determination to achieve educational goals, may positively impact persistence through difficult nursing coursework (Jeffreys, 2004). 

    Family responsibilities and external support affect students' ability to be successful (Gardner, 2005; Jeffreys, 2004). When coursework is added to household and employment responsibilities, students may feel overwhelmed. An unanticipated family crisis ( ie, illness, death, divorce) can impact attendance and student academic achievement (Hadenfeldt, 2012; Jeffreys, 2004). Lack of financial resources can influence student success as students are responsible for educational and household expenses and may be required by employers to maintain a minimum number of employment hours to retain jobs and health insurance. 

    Poor high school coursework achievement, college prerequisite science course failures, low science course grade point average, nursing coursework failure, and lack of success in pre-entrance and nursing program assessment testing are variables that suggest students might be at risk for failure for nursing program completion and NCLEX success (Fraher, Belsky, Carpenter, & Gaul, 2008; Seago, Keane, Chen, Spetz, & Grumbach, 2012).

    Nursing program characteristics can increase or decrease risk for failure. Admission policies must ensure that students who are admitted to the program have demonstrated the ability to be successful in scholarly work and that these abilities can be applied to nursing coursework and ultimately to the NCLEX. If students are deficient in English composition, math, or other academic skills, preparatory coursework should be completed prior to beginning nursing coursework. Lack of preparation will put the student at risk for failure. Once in the program, faculty knowledge regarding necessary course content, strategies to promote critical thinking, and the latest NCLEX test plan is essential. 

    Faculty support including demonstrating interest in the student, providing counsel, and assisting the student in activating support resources can make a difference in success (Shelton, 2003). Academic and social support such as tutoring and peer study groups may make a difference in the student's ability to be successful.Strategies to assist students who are at “risk for failure” can be implemented when lack of success is identified early in the semester. In a study by Hadenfeldt (2012) performance improvement plans were used with students in a community college nursing program who were not meeting academic, behavioral, or attendance requirements in a course. 

    The plans outlined which specific course objectives were not being met and provided instructor recommendations regarding resources to promote success. Students were required to develop a brief personal strategy for success. The plans increased success, especially with traditional students. In addition, most of these students passed the NCLEX on the first attempt (Hadenfeldt, 2012). In an intervention trialed by Harris, Rosenberg, and O'Rourke (2014) in an associate degree nursing program at a historically Black college, students at risk for failure were identified early and recruited into voluntary participation in the Student Success Program (SSP). 

    The SSP consisted of group meetings, individual mentoring with the program director, and completion of eight learning modules, which included identification of available resources. Faculty were also provided with workshops regarding various learning styles and strategies for maintaining a culturally sensitive classroom. Although not all desired outcomes were achieved, the faculty reported ongoing success in the use of the learning strategies, and the study resulted in a positive change in the admission requirements for the program (Harris et al., 2014). 

Factors Contributing In Risk for Failure

    There are student and nursing education program characteristics that put a student at risk for failure in a nursing education program that may result in program attrition or failure on the NCLEX examination. Program completion and passing of the NCLEX are necessary achievements toward nursing licensure. Early identification of students at risk for failure provides an opportunity to intervene with educational and support systems.

    Strategies to improve student success on the NCLEX include the use of learning assessment tools, engaging all faculty in the process of preparation by promoting critical thinking in students, providing additional support for students who have been unsuccessful on previous coursework, and intensive remediation activities for those at risk for failure on comprehensive testing during the final semester of the program (Reinhardt, Keller, Summers, & Schultz, 2012).

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