Retention of Minority Student In Nursing Education Policy

Afza.Malik GDA

Policy of Minority Students Retention In Nursing Education

Retention of Minority Student In Nursing Education Policy

What Is Student Retention,Minority Retention In Nursing Education,Variables of Student Retention,Retention Strategies In Nursing Education.

What Is Student Retention

    Retention is defined as students remaining enrolled in an institution of higher education until they graduate with a degree ( Hagedorn , 2005). As an institutional measure, retention is an indicator of quality, fiscal responsibility, and accountability by boards of higher education, state and federal governments, and accreditation agencies. Minority students are typically one of the following groups, as defined by the US Census guidelines: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (US Census Bureau, 2012). 

    Minority student retention is the center of the threefold process of recruitment, retention, and graduation needed to achieve diversity in the nursing profession. To address minority student retention, a variety of strategies have been developed by colleges and universities in general and nursing programs in particular.

Minority Retention In Nursing Education

    Retention of minority students in nursing education programs has consequences for health care as greater numbers of nurses from racial and ethnic minorities are needed to care for an increasingly diverse population (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 2014). More workforce diversity is likely to lead to improved public health, primarily through greater access to care for under served populations and better interactions between patients and health care providers (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2011)

    The issues of increased demand for nurses, lack of diversity in the nursing workforce, and high costs of academic preparation make minority student retention a crucial matter for nursing programs. The first step to ensure representation in the profession is recruitment of minority groups into nursing education programs, gaining admittance may be more difficult for minority students, in light of screening criteria imposed by many programs. Yet, current evidence indicates that growing enrollments of minority students are making the composition of the student body more racially and ethnically diverse than that of the nursing workforce (National League for Nursing INLNJ, 2013).

    Effective retention depends on the commitment the institution has to quality education and maintenance of an environment conducive to learning (Tinto, 1993). The commitment to minority student retention includes valuing cultural competence, reducing barriers to education, and making it the responsibility of the program to embrace diversity in all areas, including the website. the catalog, the curriculum, and the classroom. Other inclusive policies for nursing education programs are supportive student organizations and recognition of the assets of a diverse student body (Read, Vessey , Amar, & Cullinan , 2013).

Variables of Student Retention

    Many student variables have been linked to student retention and degree attainment, such as skills and abilities, grade point average (GPA), standardized test results, previous learning, and financial resources (Baker, 2010; Tinto, 1993). Certain variables have more influence than others on minority students. These are financial resources, family support, social integration, and the academic environment (Evans, 2013; Syed, Azmitia , & Cooper, 2011). From the evidence, several studies addressing students' perspectives and positive interactions with nursing faculty were among the most important determinants of student success in nursing programs (Baker, 2010).

    Successful completion of nursing programs may be impeded by insufficient academic preparation, financial constraints, in effective study skills, and poor English language skills (Igbo et al., 2011). Retention strategies have been developed to address these variables and improve student retention. Examples include mentoring, tutoring, special advising, financial assistance, study groups, faculty advising and counseling. peer mentoring, program orientation, and student nursing clubs (Baker, 2010; Dapremont , 2013). The literature consistently showed these multifaceted interventions were used in retaining minority students in nursing programs

Retention Strategies In Nursing Education

    While retention strategies are implemented for the purpose of maintaining student enrollment through degree attainment, the key outcome measure for minority nursing student retention is the number of racial/ethnic nurses entering the health care work force. The challenge remains to identify and measure retention strategies that help students progress to graduation ( Gilliss , Powell, & Carter, 2010).

    Many retention strategies are combined into comprehensive retention programs that address multiple student needs, making it difficult to know which particular components may be valuable and which are not effective. Well-designed research that evaluates the effectiveness of individual retention strategies are missing in the literature. Retention research is needed in nursing education in the areas of online classes, test preparation, and value of pre-entrance programs. Additional research could investigate the efficacy of social media networks, student peer groups, and academic role models.

    The goal of retention should be second only to education (Tinto, 1993). As diversity continues to be pursued within the nursing profession, retention strategies must be powerful enough to narrow change in the nursing workforce. It is in the public interest to ensure that the health care workforce is diverse and that all population groups are well served.

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