Gaming Instructions Method In Nursing Education

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Instructions Method In Nursing Education In Gaming

Gaming Instructions Method In Nursing Education

What Is Gaming In Nursing Education,Usefulness of Gaming In Nursing Education,How to Design Gaming Instruction Nursing Education.

What Is Gaming In Nursing Education

    Gaming is a method of instruction requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules (Allery, 2004). The goal is for learners to win a game by applying knowledge and rehearsing skills previously learned. Games can be simple, or they can be more complex to challenge the learner's ability to use higher order thinking and problem-solving strategies (Jaffe, 2014).

Usefulness of Gaming In Nursing Education

    The use of gaming in higher education is of growing interest to teachers seeking ways to engage learners. This development is based on the perception that many of today's students belong to the “gamer generation” or “Next generation,” meaning the generation that has grown up with computer games and other technology affecting their preferred learning styles, social interaction patterns, and technology use generally (Bekebrede, Warmelink, & Mayer, 2011). 

    Higher education is in a unique position to look at the diversity of the student body and to provide teaching methods that correlate with their active, collaborative, and technology-rich learning style. Gaming activities do not have to reflect reality, but they are designed to accomplish educational objectives. 

    Gaming is primarily effective for improving cognitive functioning but also can be used to enhance skills in the psychomotor domain and to influence affective behavior through increased social interaction (Berbiglia, Goddard, & Littlefield, 1997; Beylefeld & Struwig, 2007; Henry, 1997 ; Robinson, Lewis, & Robinson, 1990). 

    Through this active learning, gaming has the potential to connect theory with experience for nurses without any risk to patient safety (Henry, 1997; Royse & Newton, 2007).In comparison with other didactic methods, gaming is an interactive teaching method that creates a dynamic environment for learning. 

    As an experiential approach to learning, the use of games has been found to stimulate enjoyment of learning, increase active participation and engagement of learners, provide variety from a teaching/learning perspective, enhance skill acquisition, and improve problem-solving abilities (Jaffe, 2014; Raines, 2010). 

    Also, evidence suggests that gaming may improve recall and long-term retention of information (Allery, 2004; Beylefeld & Struwig, 2007; Blakely, Skirton, Cooper, Allum, & Nelmes, 2008; O'Leary, Diepenhorst, Churley Strom, & Magrane, 2005). 

    For more information on the key principles of game-based learning and low-cost gaming strategies to motivate, engage, and assess learners, see, a nonprofit educational organization that promotes a variety of game- based learning solutions.

    Games can be placed anywhere in the sequence of a learning activity (Joos, 1984). For example, they can be used as a device to conduct a needs assessment, introduce a topic, check learner progress, or summarize information. However, some games may require prerequisite knowledge for the learner to participate effectively and, therefore, may require a prior session of teaching before the game can be played (Henry, 1997; Royse & Newton, 2007). 

    For purposes of a needs assessment, Rowell and Spielvogel (1996) used an infection-control game to determine whether a knowledge deficit among staff was contributing to rising rates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The staff members were asked to identify violations of infection-control practices in a mock isolation room. 

    Participants completed and turned in an answer sheet and then proceeded to an answer station. Not only did staff have an opportunity to test themselves and correct wrong information, but participants also provided information that was helpful in planning future education programs.

How to Design Gaming Instruction Nursing Education

    Games can be designed for a single individual, such as puzzles, or for a group of players, such as bingo or Jeopardy! For gaming activities that involve multiple participants, the educator's role is that of a facilitator. At the beginning of a game, the educator tells learners the objectives and the rules, distributes any materials required to play the game, and assigns the various teams. 

    Once the game starts, the educator needs to keep the flow going and interpret the rules. The game should be interrupted as seldom or as briefly as possible so as not to disturb the pace (Joos, 1984).

    When the game is completed, winners should be rewarded. Prizes do not have to be expensive because the main purpose of them is to recognize achievement of learners in a public manner (Robinson et al., 1990). At the end of the game, the educator should conduct a debriefing session to evaluate the gaming experience. Learners should be given a chance to discuss what they learned, ask questions, receive feedback regarding the outcome of the game, and offer suggestions for improving the process.

    Games may be either purchased or designed. Well known commercial games such as Trivial Pursuit, Bingo, Monopoly, and Jeopardy! have the advantage in that their formats can be modified, the equipment is reusable for different topics, and many players already have familiarity with the rules of the games (Bender & Randall, 2006). 

    Word searches, crossword puzzles, treasure hunts, and card and board games also are flexible in format and can be developed inexpensively and with relative ease. Educators should be sure to test any games prior to wide spread use. 

    Examples of games used in health-care settings include a word search puzzle for foods known to elevate serum potassium, which is appropriate for use by patients with end stage renal disease (Robinson et al., 1990) , and Emergency Pursuit, which has content related to emergency situations that staff might encounter on a medical surgical unit (Schmitz, MacLean, & Shidler, 1991). Bauman (2012) provides a comprehensive resource for educators interested in integrating gaming to teach nursing students in a classroom and laboratory setting.

    Computer games, although much more extensive, are becoming increasingly available and are a popular option for many learners (Begg, 2008). Such games, which are also referred to as edutainment (meaning educational software disguised in a game format), introduce content or involve the process of competition to achieve a learning goal. 

    They are an enjoyable and effective way to teach specific cognitive, psychomotor, and effective skills. The Game Show Presenter software that is now available to educators to create many types of games can be accessed.Gaming is a teaching method that is particularly attractive to children, who enjoy the challenge of learning through play like activity. 

    Lieberman (2001) described an interactive video game designed for patients aged 8-16 years with type 1 diabetes. This game modeled the daily challenges of self-care, and participants were told to play the game as much or as little as they wished. By the end of the 6-month trial, there was a 77% drop in diabetes related urgent care as well as an increase in self-efficacy in communication with parents about diabetes and in self-care related to diabetes. 

    Lewis, Saydak, Mierzwa, and Robinson (1989) designed a game suitability checklist that remains relevant today for determining whether gaming is a viable alternative to meet the objectives for learning. Bruce Whitehall's Game Evaluation Sheet that can be used to rate games old and new.It is particularly important to remember that games, whether purchased or self developed, must serve the purpose of helping the learner accomplish the predetermined behavioral objectives. 

    Are people learning while they are having fun? Lieberman (2001) also reported that children and adolescents improved their self-care after engaging in interactive games related to smoking prevention, asthma, and diabetes. Other research indicates that electronic games as a tool for client education have the potential to improve health outcomes (“Editorial,” 2009).  

    Economic considerations include either the cost of purchasing a game or the time taken by the educator to design, test, and update the gaming material. Also, some types of games require the educator to be present as facilitator each time that they are played.

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