Socioeconomic as Attributes of Learner That Influences Nursing Education

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Influence of Socioeconomic On Learning In Nursing Education

Socioeconomic as Attributes of Learner That Influences Nursing Education

What are Socioeconomic Characteristics Influences Learning,Teaching Strategies for  Socioeconomic Attributes of Learner.

What are Socioeconomic Characteristics Influences Learning

    Socioeconomic status (SES), in addition to gender characteristics, influences the teaching-learning process. SES is considered the single most important determinant of both physical and mental health in our society (Crimmins & Saito, 2001; Meyer, Castro Schilo, & Agular-Gaxiola, 2014; Singh Manoux, Ferrie, Lynch, & Marmot, 2005) . Socioeconomic class is an aspect of diversity that must be addressed in the context of education and in the process of teaching and learning.

    Social and economic levels of individuals have been found to be significant variables affecting health status, literacy levels, and health behaviors (Crimmins & Saito, 2001; Monden, van Lenthe, & Mackenbach, 2006; Willingham, 2012). Over 46 million Americans (about 15% of the total population) live in poverty (US Census Bureau, 2015). Poverty is defined as an income of $24,250 per year for a family of four (USDHHS, 2015b).

    Disadvantaged people those with low incomes, low educational levels, or social deprivation come from many different ethnic groups, including millions of poor white people (USDHHS, 2012). SES accounts for the variables of educational level, family income, occupation, and family structure (Crandell et al., 2012; Willingham, 2012). 

    Geography also matters because the right mix of efforts to influence habits and to improve public health have the potential to affect longevity depending on where someone lives, in addition, income levels are a major factor influencing a person's life span. In the United States, the richest people live longer everywhere and the poor have the shortest life spans no matter whether they reside in big or small cites, suburban, or rural areas. 

    Between 2001 and 2014, the gap in life spans widened between the rich and the poor. For those with the very highest incomes, men and women live 15 and 10 years longer respectively than the very poorest Americans (Irwin & Bui. 2016). Overall, people with low SES are 46% more likely to die early than are their wealthier counterparts (Brogan, 2017).

    Collectively, these many variables influence health beliefs, health practices, and readiness to learn (Darling, 2004, Mackenbach et al., 2003; World Health Organization (WHO), 2017). The determinants of health include the following factors (WHO, 2017): the social and economic environment the physical environment the individual characteristics and behaviors of people

    Although many educators, psychologists, and sociologists have recognized that a cause and effect relationship exists among low SES and low cognitive ability, poor quality of physical and mental health, and quality of life, they are hard pressed to suggest realistic solutions for breaking this cycle (APA, 2017; Batty, Deary, & Macintyre, 2006).

    Likewise, nurses well recognize that patients belonging to lower social classes have higher rates of illness, more severe illnesses, and reduced rates of life expectancy (Mackenbach et al., 2003). People with low SES, as measured by indicators such as income, education, and occupation, have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to those with higher SES (USDHHS, 2012).

    A significant relationship exists between SES and health status. Individuals who have higher incomes and are better educated live longer and healthier lives than those who are of low income and poorly educated (Brogan, 2017; Rognerud & Zahl, 2005; Schanzenbach, Nunn, & Bauer, 2016; Zimmerman, Woolf, & Haley , 2015). Thus, the level of socioeconomic well-being is a strong indicator of health outcomes. FIGURE 8-1 illustrates the relationship between SES and health status.

    These findings raise serious questions about health differences among people of the United States resulting from unequal access to health care due to SES. These unfortunate health trends are costly to society in general and particularly to the healthcare system. Although harmful health related behaviors and less access to medical care have been found to contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates, the research is limited on the effect SES has on a disability free life or active life expectancy (Crimmins & Saito, 2001; Mackenbach et al., 2003).

    Crandell et al. (2012) and Santrock (2017) explain that many factors, including poor health care, limited resources, family stress, discrimination, and low-paying jobs, maintain the cycle by which generation after generation is born into poverty. In addition, rates of illiteracy, low literacy, and low health literacy have been linked to poorer health status, high unemployment, low earnings, and high rates of welfare dependency, all of which are common measures of a society's economic well-being (Berkman , Sheridan, Donahue, Halpern, & Crotty, 2011; Weiss, 2007).

    Whatever the factors are that keep certain groups from achieving at higher levels, these groups are likely to remain on the lower end of the occupational structure. This continuous circle of entrapment has been trapped the poverty cycle (circle of poverty) and is described as a phenomenon whereby poor families become trapped in poverty for generations because of economic, social, and geographical factors that perpetuate new cycles and a seemingly endless continuation of being impoverished (Payne, 2013). 

    The lower socioeconomic class has been studied by social scientists more than other economic classes. This research focus probably arises be- cause the health views of this group of individuals deviate the most from the viewpoints of the health professionals who care for them. People from the lower social stratum have been characterized as being indifferent to the symptoms of illness until poor health interferes with their lifestyle and independence. 

    Their view of life is one of a sense of powerlessness, meaninglessness, and isolation from middle-class knowledge of health and the need for preventive measures. such as vaccination for their children (Lipman. Offord, & Boyle, 1994; Maholmes & King, 2012; USDHHS, 2012).

    The high cost of health care may well be a major factor affecting health practices of people in the lower socioeconomic classes. Lack of health insurance remains an important factor influencing health status in the United States, particularly among the poor. However, the Affordable Care Act, which was signed into law in 2010, is beginning to show an impact on access to health care for all Americans. 

    Whereas the number of Americans without health insurance was over 17% in recent years (O'Hara & Caswell, 2012), the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2014 revealed that this number has dropped to around 13%. Of those adults under 65 years of age, 17.7% were covered by a public health insurance plan and 67.3% with a private plan (Ward, Clarke, Freeman, & Schiller, 2015). 

    Just as SES can have a negative effect on illness, so, too, can illness have devastating implications for a person's socioeconomic well being (Elstad & Krokstad, 2003). A catastrophic or chronic illness can lead to unemployment. enforced social isolation, and a strain on social support systems (Lindholm, Burstrom, & Diderichsen, 2001: Mulligan, 2004). Without the socioeconomic means to decrease these threats to their well being, individuals in poverty may be powerless to improve their situation. 

    According to Health Poverty Action (2017) “poverty is both a cause and a consequence of poor health” (p. 1). Poverty often leads to poor health and poor health can trap someone in poverty, which is sometimes referred to as situational poverty (Payne, 2013). As such, people with good health tend to move up in the social hierarchy, whereas those with poor health move downward.

    These multiple losses burden the individual, their families, and the healthcare system. Low income groups are especially affected by changes in federal and state assistance in the form of Medicare and Medicaid. The high costs associated with illness that result in overuse of the healthcare system have resulted in increased interest on the part of the public and healthcare providers to control costs (Carpenter, 2011). Today, more emphasis is being given to keeping people well by efforts aimed at health promotion, health maintenance, and disease prevention.

Teaching Strategies for  Socioeconomic Attributes of Learner

    The current trends in health care reflecting these socioeconomic concerns are directed toward teaching individuals how to achieve and maintain health. The nurse plays a key role in educating the consumer about avoiding health risks, reducing illness episodes, establishing healthful environmental conditions, and accessing health care services. 

    Patient education by nurses for those individuals who are deprived socially and economically has the potential to yield short term benefits in meeting these individuals' immediate healthcare needs. However, more research must be done to determine whether teaching can ensure the long-term benefits of helping people of low SES develop the skills needed to reach and sustain independence in self-care management (Adams, 2010; Grønning, Rannestad, Skomsvoll, Rygg , & Steinsbekk, 2014; Niedermann, Fransen, Knols, & Uebelhart, 2004).

    Nurses must be aware of the likely effects of low SES on an individual's ability to learn because of less than average cognitive functioning, poor academic achievement, low literacy, high susceptibility to illness, and inadequate social support systems. Low-income people are at greater risk for these factors, all of which can interfere with learning. Stress hormones caused by poverty, for example, have been shown to “poison the brain for a lifetime” (Krugman, 2008; Lende, 2012). 

    However, what is probably most important is to prevent the effects of poverty in the first place by breaking the vicious generational poverty cycle. Some select approaches, known as two generational programs, have demonstrated long-term success in achieving better educational outcomes, improved social benchmarks, and greater employment opportunities for children born into provided with free high quality, early childhood education from infancy through age 5 but their parents are given assistance in finding better jobs and learning parenting skills to build stronger families (Semuels, 2014).

    Nurses should not assume, though, that everyone at the poverty or near poverty level is equally influenced by these threats to their well being. To avoid stereotyping, it is essential that every individual and family be assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses for learning. In this way, teaching strategies unique to specific circumstances can be designed to assist socioeconomically deprived individuals in meeting their needs for health care.

    Nevertheless, it is well documented that individuals with literacy problems, poor educational backgrounds, and low academic achievement are likely to have low self-esteem, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, and low expectations. Also, they tend to think in concrete terms, to focus more on satisfying immediate needs, to have a more external locus of control. and to have decreased attention spans. 

    They often have difficulty in solving problems and in analyzing and summarizing large amounts of information. The nurse will most likely have to rely on specific teaching methods and tools identified as appropriate when intervening with patients who have low literacy abilities.

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