Stereotyping of Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education

Nurses Educator 2

Cultures Diversity in Nursing Education and Dealing With Stereotyping

Stereotyping of Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education

Stereotyping Identifying the Meaning, the Risks, and the Solutions,Nurses Educator Dealing Beyond Their Culture,Positive or Negative Impact of Cultural Stereotype on Nursing Education,Strategies for Cultural Stereotype on Nursing Education.

Stereotyping: Identifying the Meaning, the Risks, and the Solutions

    In addressing the diversity issues of gender, socio-economics, and culture, nurses must acknowledge the risks of stereotyping inherent in discussing these three attributes of the learner. Throughout this chapter, it has been clearly documented that differences exist in learning based on gender, socio-economics, and culture, which in turn often require alternative approaches to teaching. 

    It is important to realize that differences are not based on judgments as to what is good or bad, or right or wrong; rather, nurses should be acutely aware of the need to attend to these differences in a sensitive, open, and fair manner.

Nurses Educator Dealing Beyond Their Culture

    Nurse educators and other health professionals must relate to each person as an individual. It is important to develop an awareness that although a person can be considered a member or may identify with members of a certain ethnic group, the individual has his or her own abilities, experiences, preferences, and practices. Learning needs, learning styles, and readiness to learn are all factors that influence lifestyle behaviors that go beyond the culture in which someone was raised.

    Nevertheless, everyone has been socialized in subtle and not-so-subtle ways according to his or her own diversity attributes, socioeconomic and political backgrounds, and other life exposures. It is important to acknowledge the prejudices, biases, and the tendency to stereotype that can come into play when dealing with others like or unlike ourselves. 

    A conscious attempt must be made to recognize these possible attitudes and the effect they may have on others in our care (Burgess, van Ryan, Dovido, & Saha, 2007). To address the dangers of stereotyping on more than just a superficial level, this section examines examples of what constitutes un-acceptable forms of stereotyping, which pitfalls can arise in dealing with diversity, and what can be done to avoid behaviors that stereotype ourselves and others .

Positive or Negative Impact of Cultural Stereotype on Nursing Education

    Stereotyping is defined by Purnell (2013) as “an oversimplified conception, opinion, or belief about some aspect of an individual or group of people” (p. 486). Exaggerated generalizations are commonly made about the characteristics, behaviors, and motives associated with any person or group of people. Actually, stereotyping can be positive or negative, depending on how, where, when, why, and about whom it is applied (Satel, 2002).

    For example, stereotyping can be a useful and acceptable process to organize or classify people if based on facts and logical reasoning that helps them to identify and understand in formation-for example, “he's Jewish,” “she's Italian,” or “they 're Democrats.” Conversely, stereotyping can be negative if it is used to place people in an artificial or unfair position that oversimplifies their situation and is not based on facts.     

    Negative stereotyping leads to disrespecting, dehumanizing, and defaming an individual or group, which serves as a barrier to equality and fairness toward others. Of most importance, negative stereotyping can result in poorer health outcomes for the patients (University of Southern California, 2015). Also, stereotyping members of health professions can lead to negative or false perceptions that hinder the delivery of collaborative patient-centered care by healthcare teams (Ateah et al., 2011; Cook & Stoecker, 2014).

    Stereotyping deserves a bad name when it is associated with bias or clichés. A huge emotional component exists to stereotyping. The language that is used, the attitudes that are projected. the conclusions that are drawn, and the context in which stereotyping is used all determine whether it has a positive or negative quality.

    Unfortunately, classification by association is often biased. Stereotyping in this sense is used to label someone. For example, Americans tend to think of themselves as the freedom fighters and liberty lovers of the world; in the same breath. they may describe members of other groups or nationalities as violators of human rights or terrorists. 

    This threat of stereotyping is even greater today based on the terrorist attacks occurring in the United States and worldwide, especially in the past 2 decades. Simple appearance, such as a beard, attracts, or form of speech, can be the basis of broad and deep prejudices.

    People particularly tend to use an excuse to classify individuals when they do not like or respect others whose backgrounds, attitudes, abilities, values, or beliefs are different from or opposed to their own or are misunderstood or misinterpreted. Stereotyping, either conscious or subconscious, results in intolerance toward others and engenders the belief that our way is the only way or the right way. 

Strategies for Cultural Stereotype on Nursing Education

    In health care, labeling, stereotyping, and stigmatizing responses by nurses and other providers marginalize patients. Stereotype threat is a term to describe a negative impression associated with an individual's status that triggers physiological and psychological behaviors in patients as well as in providers that may be a contributor to health-care disparities (Abdou & Fingerhut, 2014; Burgess, Warren, Phelan , Dovidio, & van Ryn, 2010; Ofri, 2011). 

    As Curtin (2017) so aptly stated in her discussion about bridging the “we vs. they” gap, “consideration for others shouldn’t be a terribly difficult proposition. It takes no more energy to be thoughtful than to be thoughtless, to be accepting rather than condemning, to be kind rather than intolerant” (p. 48).

    For example, research into gender stereo-typing in the past 25 years has documented that elementary and secondary school teachers interact more actively with boys compared to girls by asking boys more questions, giving them more feedback (praise and positive encouragement), and providing them with more specific and valuable comments and guidance. 

    In these subtle ways, stereotypical expectations are reinforced (Snowman & McCown, 2015). Attitudes toward gender-role competencies are considered a type of stereotyping. Gender bias has inequality produced in education, employment, and other social spheres.

    Nurses must concentrate on treating people of all genders equally when providing access to health education, delivering health and illness care, and designing health education materials that contain bias-free language. 

    For example, they must avoid gender-specific terms, such as using he or she, unless critical to the content, and choose words that minimize ambiguity in gender identity, such as using the plural pronoun they. If possible, nurses should avoid beginning or ending words with man or men, such as man made, mankind, or chairmen. Do not specify marital status unless necessary by using Ms. instead of Mrs. 

    The purpose for using gender-fair language is to reduce gender stereotyping and social discrimination (Sczesny, Formanowicz, & Moser, 2016). Suggestions for how to avoid sexist language can be found in the Guidelines for Gender Fair Use of Language by the National Council of Teachers of English (2002) and Purdue Online Writing Lab's (2010) Stereotypes and Biased Language document.

    With respect to age, socioeconomics, culture and race, religion, or disabilities, stereotyping most definitely exists. Throughout this chapter, many cautions have been issued against stereo typing of individuals and groups. For example, just because someone belongs to a specific ethnic group does not necessarily mean that the individual adheres to all the beliefs and practices of that culture.

     A thorough and accurate assessment of the learner is the key to determining the specific abilities, preferences, and needs of every individual. The nurse should choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias whenever speaking or writing about an individual or a group of individuals. Nurses should refer to someone's ethnicity, race, religion, age, and SES only when it is essential to the content being addressed. 

    For instance, it is more politically and socially correct to use the term older adult than the term elderly or aged. Do not label a member of a special population as a disabled person but rather use people-first language when referring to him or her as a person with a disability. Also, it is more appropriate and more acceptable to refer to a person with diabetes rather than a diabetic or to a person with AIDS rather than an AIDS victim.

To avoid stereotyping, nurses should ask themselves the following questions:

Do I use neutral language when teaching patients and families?

Do I confront bias when evidenced by other healthcare professionals?

Do I request information equally from patients regardless of gender, SES, age, or culture? 

Are my instructional materials free of stereotypical terminology and expressions?

Am I an effective role model of equality for my colleagues?

Do I treat all patients with fairness, respect, and dignity? Does someone's appearance influence (raise or lower) my expectations of that person's abilities or affect the quality of care I deliver?

Do I assess the educational and experiential backgrounds, personal attributes, and economic resources of patients to ensure appropriate health teaching?

Am I knowledgeable enough of the cultural traditions of various groups to provide sensitive care in our multicultural, pluralistic society?

    It is all too easy to stereotype someone not out of malice but rather out of ignorance. Nurses have a responsibility to keep informed of the most current beliefs and facts about various gender attributes, socioeconomic influences, and cultural traditions that could influence their teaching and learning either positively or negatively. 

    Every day, research in nursing, social science, psychology, and medicine is yielding information that will assist in planning and revising appropriate education interventions to meet the needs of diverse patient populations.

Post a Comment


Give your opinion if have any.

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Ok, Go it!) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Check Now
Ok, Go it!