Designing Learning Object Based Distant Education Curriculum In Nursing

Nurses Educator 2

Learning Object Based Distant Education Curriculum Designing In Nursing

Designing Learning Object Based Distant Education Curriculum In Nursing

 Standards For Learning Objects In Distant Education,Learning Objects in Nursing Education In Distant Education,Planning a Learning Object Rich Curriculum,Distant Education Curriculum Building For Nurses,Planning the Creation, Storage, and Retrieval of Learning Objects,Cost Saving Aspects of Distant Education In Nursing,Creation of Learning Objects In Distance Education,Internet Resources for Learning Objects In Distant Education.

Standards For Learning Objects In Distant Education

    An influential group comprised of the Learning Technology Standards Committee of IEEE, IMS Global Learning Consortium, and the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative has developed metadata standards for learning object creation, storage, and retrieval (Polsani, 2003). Metadata standards refer to the guidelines for creating data about data. 

    More simply stated, metadata files are text rich files that provide a universal nomenclature for organizing learning objects. Without standards for metadata files and learning objects, they cannot be adopted by multiple users, in multiple contexts, and in multiple arenas.

    The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a set of guidelines with specifications and standards that encourage a common technical framework for computer and web-based learning. Specifically, SCORM describes a content aggregation model (CAM) and run-time environment (RTE) for learning objects to be adaptable in multiple ways (Advanced Distributive Learning, 2003). 

    SCORM meets universal standards for metadata so that databases or repositories that house learning objects can be harvested and converted to other storage repositories easily.

    Beyond the metadata and learning objects standards described above, more specific standards with a controlled naming scheme must be created by the learning objects developers. These specific guidelines are typically discipline-specific and use nomenclature similar to that of electronic library databases such as MESH headings used in Medline. 

    This ensures a universal naming and organizing system so that various databases and repositories of learning objects can be shared among institutions and educators. 

Learning Objects in Nursing Education In Distant Education

    Learning objects are well suited for nursing education, especially those curricula exploring distance education. For nursing programs to gain recognition through accrediting bodies and to meet standards set forth by the National Board of Nursing, educational programs must vary minimally from one program to the next. In fact, programs must comply with specific curriculum content. 

    Conceptual models of nursing and nursing theory and ethical principles are drawn upon an increasing level of sophistication in the educational experience. Based on these facts, the sharing and reusing of teaching/learning concepts is not only feasible but sound practical for cost-effectiveness and resource allocation. 

    Thorough and meticulous planning is essential before adopting learning objects so that the objects can be used, retrieved, and stored, and to ensure quality in the educational experience. This planning must consider not only learning objects but also the ways to organize and tag the objects (meta data), the ways learning objects are integrated in LCMSs, and it must occur in two domains: curriculum planning, and the planning of the creation , storage, and retrieval of learning objects. 

Planning a Learning Object Rich Curriculum

    As schools of nursing move further into the world of technological advances, reliance on digitally prepared teaching illustrations and tools gain acceptance and credibility for their cost effective application. Educators who work with instructional designers and technology experts on campus are more likely to develop competence in the design, use, and reuse of learning objects. 

    There must be a commitment to integrate the technological infrastructure of the institution and a vision of the creative potential inherent in this method of teaching to reap the benefits over the long term.

Distant Education Curriculum Building For Nurses

    Ornstein and Hunkins (1998, pp. 204-205) describe several curriculum building models (for example, Bobbit, Charters, Tyler, Taba, Glatthorn) that readers may consider. For the purpose of this discussion, the authors will describe Glatt horn's naturalistic model, which has eight steps: 

(1) Assess the alternatives to what is currently used

(2) stake out the territory by defining the course parameters and the learning audience

(3) develop a collaborative constituency for the process that is inclusive and fosters growth

(4) build the knowledge base about the content, the students, faculty skill, participation by the technology department, and potential research opportunity

(5) block the units, courses, or modules of study for learner-based needs

(6) plan quality learning experiences to address the objectives through student-centered approaches, allowing for flexibility according to learner needs

(7) develop the course assessments with student participation requirements such as portfolios, biographies, etc.

(8) develop the learning scenarios rather than the standard curriculum guide, such as learning contracts or learning plans. 

    The first domain of planning requires an evaluation of the program and specific needs to ensure the learning objects have contextual meaning and will transition smoothly into the curriculum. The curriculum committee examines the philosophical underpinnings of the program, keeping in mind the constructivist approach and which digital based learning components embody the requirements of adult learners and complement the curriculum. 

    After careful consideration, the committee plans the systematic identification of existing raw data in the curriculum content. Faculty submit their wealth of illustrations, interactive methods, and learning assessment tools to share with the committee. The learning objects are evaluated for relevance and reuse or replicability in the progression of learning objectives. 

    Collaborative work with technology experts in digital design and development of computer based course management is essential in the second domain, which is the planning of the creation, storage, and retrieval of learning objects.

Planning the Creation, Storage, and Retrieval of Learning Objects

    The second domain requires an examination of the program learning concepts so that the learning objects are interoperable, reusable, and accessible. Before creating learning objects, the associated objective must be broken into its smallest element (granularity), matching a learning object to a single learning entity or concept. Likewise, the learning object represents the smallest element of a learning resource. 

    Wiley (2002) noted an inverse relationship between granularity or the size of the learning object and its reusability; the larger the learning object, the less the object is reused. Granularity of a learning object ensures effective utilization of the resources because objects are created at the smallest level of learning structure and can be used in a variety of ways to meet multiple learning objectives. 

Cost Saving Aspects of Distant Education In Nursing

    The stored in repositories (libraries) of learning objects are easily accessible and cost effective.The director of an institution's resource center/media laboratory plays a valuable role in creating a repository. Educators and technology experts view this method as cost saving because the institution can do the following: 

(1) develop and deploy learning content quickly and efficiently

(2) port content easily between multiple LMSs or LCMSs

(3) reduce content development and delivery costs

(4) reduces maintenance time and costs (Mortimer, 2002)

Creation of Learning Objects In Distance Education

    There are a variety of methods to use in the creation of learning objects.It may be as simple as a photo in a slide presentation or more technical such as a brief Flash movie embedded in a Web page or in a slide presentation. Once these assets are created, they should be treated like jewels in a treasure chest of resources. For that to occur, they need to be identified in relationship to: 

(1) their use on all possible levels 

(2) in all potential applications to knowledge building related to the learning objectives; as well as 

(3) assessment of learning strategies

(4) file size or “seat time” the time it takes to teach or the student to complete

(5) its relationship to associated learning objects and the larger learning asset

    The learning object should be established in a file structure similar to a library and supported with keywords and phrases that allow any faculty member to search for an illustration that enhances their teaching presentation. Quality learning objects that are effectively organized in a searchable repository contribute to the goal of just-in-time learning and many-to-every delivery.

    Learning objects are easily stored on servers with Internet access. If material is copyright protected, databases or repositories that store the learning objects must be secure and require authentication with login pages. This protects the copyright and educational fair use practices. 

    If learning objects are not copyright material, then open source repositories should be considered so that the learning objects are public domain, encouraging a community of sharing among nursing educators. The authors would go a step further and invite all schools of nursing to form consortiums for the purposes of sharing the wealth of learning objects extant and collaborate on effective and efficient development of new ones. 

    Many hours of time and creative energy may be saved for the demand of student interaction in a resource constrained profession.All faculty and instructors may contribute to the development of learning objects, at any level of technological expertise. The learners themselves will have valid ideas for their design as well. 

    Just as with the adoption of the distance learning modality into curricula, the acceptance of change in the delivery mode for personalized knowledge tools comes at a varying pace. A successful transition to the adoption of learning objects is aided by mentoring and sharing of creative ideas and expertise. 

    Once the scope of the best course resources, or course assets, are viewed and all possible applications of the tools of learning are matched to the curriculum threads, the process should be documented. Then the assets are broken down into data bits, or finer granularity. 

    As discussed previously, all information about the data bit (LO) is documented using a table with suggested headings: title, description, author, date of creation, keywords/phrases or word sense, related learning objective, where used (PPT, video , assessment, web page, etc.), type of LO, language, estimated learning time. Once faculty have a clear view of existing assets of learning and their related LOs, creation may begin on additional LOs that further enhance the learning experiences of students. 

    Admittedly, the early phase of curriculum revision as it relates to this computer technology demands effort and time and requires attention to the learning curve of faculty. Eleven procedures, resources, and scheduling are put in place, conceptualization, creation, and integration of new learning objects and their relativity to the curriculum become commonplace. 

    The importance of creating a sharing culture through consortiums and working relationships with nurse educators across communities cannot be overemphasized. Without a sharing culture, resources are re-created again and again and resources are underutilized once created.

Internet Resources for Learning Objects In Distant Education

    The authors wish to direct the readers to various resources on the Internet pertaining to learning objects. This list is not conclusive and by no means should be considered the only resources available. In fact, this simply scratches the surface of information on learning objects. However, the authors believe that this list provides a foundation for educators desiring more information about learning objects.

Post a Comment


Give your opinion if have any.

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Ok, Go it!) #days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Check Now
Ok, Go it!