Mentoring, Scholarly Endeavor and Scholarship Discovery In Nursing Education

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Nursing Education and Concept of Mentoring, Scholarly Endeavor and Scholarship Discovery

Mentoring, Scholarly Endeavor and Scholarship Discovery In Nursing Education

Mentoring for Faculty In Nursing Education, Teaching as a Scholarly Endeavor In Nursing Education, Scholarship of Discovery In Nursing Education, Scholarship of Application In Nursing Education, Scholarship of Teaching Faculty In Nursing Education.

Mentoring for Faculty In Nursing Education

    The faculty role is a multifaceted one with multiple demands. Faculty, especially those new to the role, find that having a mentor, or mentors, is beneficial to establishing and succeeding in an academic career. Mentors are helpful for the career development of senior faculty as well as novice faculty (Halstead and Frank, 2011). 

    Singh, Pilkington, and Patrick (2014) studied the orientation and mentoring needs of nursing faculty. Mentoring related to “establishing a program of research included how to plan a program of research, creating partnerships, developing an awareness of funding mechanisms, hiring research and graduate assistants, grant writing, publishing, and time management to balance demands of teaching, research, service, and a personal life” (p. 7). 

    As can be seen from this brief description related to developing a research program, many aspects of the process could benefit from the input of a more experienced faculty and researcher. Faculty should carefully reflect on their career development needs and seek out mentors who can help them achieve their career goals.

Teaching as a Scholarly Endeavor In Nursing Education

    Boyer (1990) first proposed a new paradigm for scholarship that encompassed all aspects of the faculty role but placed a renewed emphasis on teaching as a scholarly endeavor. In Scholarship, reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate, Boyer called for the development of a balance between research and teaching when measuring the faculty member's success in academia. 

    He described four types of scholarship in which faculty engage: the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application, and the scholarship of teaching. In these four types of scholarship, the previously narrow view of scholarly productivity that rested only on the careful discovery of new knowledge through research has been greatly expanded.     

    Boyer's model supports the practice model of nursing, which calls for more than the discovery of knowledge; it also calls for the application and integration of knowledge into professional practice. 

    As Boyer stated: We believe the time has come to move beyond the tired old “teaching versus research” debate and give the familiar and honorable term “scholarship” a broader, more capacious meaning, one that brings legitimacy to the full scope of academic work . Surely, scholarship means engaging in original research. 

    But the work of the scholar also means stepping back from one's investigation, looking for connections, building bridges between theory and practice, and communicating one's knowledge effectively to students. 

    Specifically, we conclude that the work of the professorate might be thought of as having four separate, yet overlapping, functions. These are: the scholarship of discovery; the scholarship of integration; the scholarship of application; and the scholarship of teaching. (p. 16)

Scholarship of Discovery In Nursing Education

    The scholarship of discovery is the traditional definition of original research or discovery of new knowledge (Boyer, 1990). The scholarship of discovery may be considered the foundation of the other three aspects of scholarship because new knowledge is generated for application and integration into the discipline, as well as for teaching.

    It is through the scholarship of discovery that scientific methods are used to develop a strong knowledge base for the discipline. Evidence-based practice in nursing builds on the knowledge generated by the scholarship of discovery. 

    Most federal funding has traditionally been appropriated for the scholarship of discovery, and until recently tenure decisions in many universities have been based primarily on the faculty member's commitment in the generation of new knowledge. 

    The scholarship of discovery remains an important aspect of the role of many faculties, including nursing faculties. 

    At the federal level, research efforts in nursing are supported by the National Institute of Nursing Research and content specific institutes such as the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Mental Health, as well as private philanthropic foundations. 

    The Scholarship of Integration The scholarship of integration involves the interpretation and synthesis of knowledge within and across discipline boundaries in a manner that provides a larger context for the knowledge and the development of new insights (Boyer, 1990). 

    The scholarship of integration requires communication among colleagues from various disciplines who work together to develop a more holistic view of a common concern. The combined expertise of all who are involved leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the issue and results in more thorough recommendations for solutions to the phenomena of concern.

    Nursing faculty have long integrated knowledge from various disciplines into their practice, and have many competencies that enable them to be productive members of interdisciplinary teams that study a variety of health problems and issues. With the emphasis in

    Today's world on the development of collaborative, team-building, and knowledge sharing efforts across disciplines, the scholarship of integration assumes an ever increasing importance for faculty who must remain at the forefront of the information age. 

    Nursing content often builds on the knowledge students have learned from other disciplines such as the biological and social sciences. The scholarship of integration involves designing learning models that guide the students to apply their previously learned knowledge to clinical situations such as with the use of high amplitude patient simulation. 

    Much scholarship of integration is being published in the area of patient simulation at this time.

Scholarship of Application In Nursing Education

    The scholarship of application, which connects theory and practice is an area of scholarship in which nursing faculty should also excel. In the scholarship of application, faculty must ask themselves, “How can knowledge be responsibly applied to consequential problems?” (Boyer, 1990, p. 21). 

    Service activities that are directly connected to a faculty member's areas of expertise warrant consideration as application scholarship. It is in the performance of service activities that practice and theory interact, thus leading to the potential development of new knowledge.

    For example, in nursing, clinical practice and expertise that result in the development of examples of nursing interventions and positive patient care outcomes meet the definition of scholarship of application (Paskiewicz, 2003; Riley, Beal, Levi, & McCausland, 2002). 

    Activities that encourage students to use critical decision making, self-reflection, and self-evaluation are examples of the scholarship of application in teaching. Faculty practice in nursing centers is another example.

    Faculty should disseminate the knowledge gathered through practice and service activities by publishing in professional journals. The scholarship of application, which includes service to the profession of nursing at the local, regional, national, and international levels, also involves developing policies and practices for nursing and health care. Nursing faculty often provide leadership in professional organizations and on community or national panels and boards.

Scholarship of Teaching Faculty In Nursing Education

    The heart of the faculty role can be found in the scholarship of teaching. An important attribute of any scholar is having the ability to effectively communicate the knowledge he or she possesses to students. 

    Boyer's (1990) definition of scholarship provides a model through which the special competencies and skills that are an integral part of the scholarly endeavor of teaching are recognized.

    Developing innovative curricula, using a variety of teaching methods that actively involve students in the learning process, collaborating with students on learning projects, and exploring the most effective means of meeting the learning needs of diverse populations of students are all examples of the scholarship of teaching . 

    The scholarship of teaching requires evidence of effective teaching and dissemination of the knowledge that is acquired as a result of teaching. Faculty should share their teaching expertise with them colleagues through publication and presentation of their innovative teaching methods and the outcomes of their working with students.

    The scholarship of teaching brings many exciting opportunities for nursing faculty in classroom and clinical settings. It is based on the scholarship of discovery, integration, and practice (Shoffner, Davis, & Bowen, 1994). At a time when health care practice arenas are rapidly changing, curriculum models are being designed to meet the needs of a global society. 

    The use of technology in education is increasing, and perspectives on teaching and learning are changing. The scholarship of teaching provides nursing faculty with the opportunity to demonstrate their innovation and creativity. It also provides a means for recognizing the effort spent preparing students to be competent health care providers for the future.

    Although the role of the faculty member remains complex, Boyer's (1990) broad description of scholarship provides a model that legitimizes all aspects of the faculty role. Boyer has given credibility to aspects of the faculty role that extends beyond the creation of new knowledge through research to include teaching and service to the university, community, and profession. 

    As a scholarly endeavor teaching is the synthesis of all types of scholarship described by Boyer. Faculty can combine the role of researcher with the integration, application, and dissemination of knowledge. 

    Boyer has provided a model for nursing faculty to use to develop their expertise in teaching as a scholarly endeavor (Shoffner et al., 1994). Nursing education has moved from the notion that there is only one way to do something to a broader perspective that recognizes the creativity and uniqueness of each student. 

    The teacher is no longer the only expert but instead is someone who joins with the student in the learning process and evaluates the results of the teaching–learning process in a scholarly manner.

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