Role of Faculty and Future Trends In Nursing Education

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 Nursing Education Role of Faculty and Future Trends

Role of Faculty and Future Trends In Nursing Education

Nursing Education Move to College and University, Demand of Higher Education In Nursing Views as Past an Future, Link In Nursing Education and Needed Clinical Expertise, Moves or Upgradation of Education from Diploma to Degree Level and Future, Challenges In Nursing Education Trend and Future.

Nursing Education Move to College and University

    Over time, as nursing education has moved from the service sector to college and university campuses, the role of nursing faculty has evolved, becoming increasingly complex. As higher education and the science of nursing has developed, the effect on nursing education has been tremendous.

Demand of Higher Education In Nursing Views as Past an Future

    Nursing education is enmeshed in sweeping changes. The forces driving these changes are numerous and difficult to isolate; they include the severe nursing faculty shortage, the increasing multiculturalism of society, the decreasing financial resources in education and health care, changes in the delivery of health care through health care reform, the integration of evidence based practice and the need for more nurses with higher degrees, expanding technology and the accompanying knowledge explosion, the need for lifelong learning, a shifting emphasis to learning instead of teaching, and the increasing public demand for accountability of educational outcomes.

    There has been a call by the federal government and others to build more points of student assessment into postsecondary education to provide evidence that outcomes are being met in an effort to hold colleges and universities accountable for the learning experiences they provide (Dwyer, Millett, & Payne, 2006). These are just a few of the issues that educators must consider as they fulfill the responsibilities of their role.

Link In Nursing Education and Needed Clinical Expertise

    The need to maintain strong clinical skills within the context of a continuing critical shortage of nurses that is projected to last for decades have created an additional challenge for nurse educators (Beck & Ruth-Sahd, 2013). The requirement to maintain certification qualifications in their specialties is another factor contributing to work strain for nurse educators.

    In addition to clinical certifications, nurse educators now have the additional option of seeking credentialing as a certified nurse educator (CNE) through the National League for Nursing's (NLN) Academic Nurse Educator Certification Program (National League for Nursing (NLN), 2014).

    This additional affirmation of teaching expertise helps to close the widening practice education gap. As of 2013, more than 3800 nurse educators had achieved CNE certification (Hagler, Poindexter, & Lindell, 2014), and it is estimated the number will reach 5000 by 2016.

Moves or Upgradation of Education from Diploma to Degree Level and Future

    To meet projected demands for registered nurses, nursing programs must increase their graduation rates, especially for nurses with higher degrees (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010; US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).

    According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 78,089 qualified applicants were turned away from baccalaureate and graduate nursing programs because of lack of available faculty and clinical resources (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 2014).

    The Future of Nursing report released by the Institute of Medicine (2010) issued a call for a nursing workforce in which 80% of nurses will have a bachelor's degree in nursing by 2020 as well as doubling the number of nurses prepared with a doctorate.

    At the same time, the Tri-Council for Nursing (2010)—made up of the AACN, the American Nurses Association, the American Organization of Nurse Executives, and the NLN—reports a scarcity of prepared nursing faculty. Only one in four full-time nursing faculty held a doctoral degree in 2009, whereas two-thirds were masters prepared (Kaufman, 2010).

Challenges In Nursing Education Trend and Future

    The demand for more nurses in service settings with advanced degrees and a scarcity of prepared nursing faculty have placed a tremendous burden on nursing education and the faculty trying to meet the growing needs.

    Nursing education is in a crisis, overloaded by the demand to teach more students with fewer faculty members. The faculty shortage is being exacerbated by the projection that 500,000 nursing faculty will retire in the next 10 years (Aiken, 2011).

    Nearly 76% of full-time nursing faculty were older than 45 in 2009 (Kaufman, 2010). According to the AACN, “The average ages of doctorally prepared nurse faculty holding the ranks of professor, associate professor, and assistant professor were 61.6, 57.6, and 51.4 years, respectively. For master's degree–prepared nurse faculty, the average ages for professors, associate professors, and assistant professors were 57.1, 56.8, and 51.2 years, respectively” (Nursing

    In addition to losing nursing faculty to retirements, faculty leave academia at an alarming rate for other reasons. Factors identified that influence faculty turnover include workload, demand for a tenure-track position, perceived lack of collegiality, and noncompetitive salaries. Areas of satisfaction that enhance faculty retention include faculty identity (autonomy and role), research satisfaction, and sense of belonging to an academic community (Tracy & Fang, 2011).

    As faculty in higher education face these challenges, they need to find new ways to teach and implement their role. Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, and Day (2010) call for a radical change in how nursing students are educated.

    As a result of their study of selected nursing programs, they concluded that nursing programs have many deficits, including weak classroom pedagogy, failure to integrate classroom and clinical content and experiences, and poor development of Students' clinical reasoning and inquiry skills.

    They made 26 recommendations to transform nursing education, calling for a major paradigm shift. Nursing faculty of the future will need to embrace innovation and be advocates for change and forward movement if these goals are to be met.

    This Topic provides a brief historical perspective of the faculty role; outlines future trends; identifies faculty rights and responsibilities; and describes the process of faculty, appointment, and tenure (APT) within the current context.

    In addition, faculty development of the competencies related to teaching as a scholarly endeavor is discussed, and implications for change in the faculty role needed to meet current and future expectations and demands are addressed.

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