Portfolio and E-Portfolio, Problem Based Learning, Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Reflection and Journal Writing, Astin's Theory and Blooms Knowledge Dimensions In Nursing Education

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Nursing Education & Portfolio and E-Portfolio, Problem Based Learning, Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Reflection and Journal Writing, Astin's Theory 

Portfolio and E-Portfolio, Problem Based Learning, Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Reflection and Journal Writing, Astin's Theory and Blooms Knowledge Dimensions In Nursing Education

Portfolio and E-Portfolio In Nursing Education, Teaching Tips for Portfolios and E-Portfolios, Advantages of Portfolio or E-Portfolio, Disadvantages of Portfolio or E-Portfolio, Problem Based Learning In Nursing Education, Teaching Tips for Problem Based Learning, Advantages of Problem Based Learning, Disadvantages of Problem Based Learning, Questioning and Socratic Questioning In Nursing Education, Teaching Tips for Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Advantages of Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Disadvantages of Questioning and Socratic Questioning, Reflection and Journal Writing In Nursing Education, Teaching Tips for Reflection and Journal Writing, Advantages of Reflection and Journal Writing, Disadvantages of Reflection and Journal Writing, Astin's Theory for Student Engagement , Blooms Knowledge Dimensions.

Portfolio and E-Portfolio In Nursing Education

    A portfolio is a collection of student work showcasing learning, achievement, and personal and professional development. Documentation of student skills from prior courses or life experiences can be used for assessing learning outcomes for a course or program, or for professional development. This may be completed electronically (e-portfolio).

Teaching Tips for Portfolios and E-Portfolios

    Students may need an orientation about how to construct a portfolio. A content outline should provide the framework for the portfolio but not limit student creativity. Assessment of portfolios can be complex and difficult. The novice may want to seek consultation from experts for assistance. Guidelines for the portfolio construction and evaluation must be clear.

Advantages of Portfolio or E-Portfolio

    Portfolios typically provide high student motivation because they control learning. Motivated students typically learn more. Portfolios help educators understand individual student goals and aspirations. They encourage student reflection on learning. Independent, self confident, and self-directed students will excel with this method.

Disadvantages of Portfolio or E-Portfolio

    Portfolios must be combined with reflective strategies to encourage student ownership of learning. They require alternative ways of thinking about the learning process by both educators and students. Students with low self-confidence will need much faculty assistance. 

    The time involvement may be high for students in development of portfolios and for faculty in evaluation of portfolios. Unless students clearly see the objective of a portfolio, the work involved may be viewed as busywork.

Problem Based Learning In Nursing Education

    PBL uses clinical problems and professional issues as the focus for integrating all of the content necessary for clinical practice. It is a highly structured and learner-centered method of teaching and learning. Real-life problems are the basis of the initial learning content. Learning is student-initiated, usually in groups. 

    Faculty members are facilitators of student learning. The five steps in the PBL process include analysis of problems, establishment of learning outcomes, collection of information, summarizing, and reflection. 

   PBL is usually used as an approach to the entire curriculum, rather than focusing on separate disciplines or nursing specialties. This strategy can be completed online or in the classroom, and it can be used for inter professional or peer learning.

Teaching Tips for Problem Based Learning

   Develop realistic, comprehensive clinical problems that will prompt and advance intended learning outcomes. The case problem presented is typically accomplished through several scenes containing complex but realistic information that requires the students to process the available information into categories. 

   Faculty workload can increase significantly, particularly during the development stages. PBL requires close collaboration between various disciplines if the case or curriculum is interdisciplinary. 

    Orient students to the PBL approach and allow sufficient time for students to research the problem and discuss answers. Groups of six to nine students are most effective for PBL.

Advantages of Problem Based Learning

    PBL fosters active and cooperative learning. Students use skills of inquiry and metacognitive thinking, as well as peer teaching and peer evaluation. The problem can be developed in paper-and-pencil or electronic formats. 

    Students often work in teams or groups. PBL can be used in interdisciplinary learning environments to develop roles and competencies of each discipline. Contextual learning motivates students and increases the ability to apply knowledge in clinical situations. 

    It increases student responsibility for self-directed and peer learning and develops flexible knowledge that can be applied to different contexts. This learning method develops lifelong learning skills.

Disadvantages of Problem Based Learning

    PBL involves faculty time in developing the problem situation. Extensive time is needed for faculty to learn to use PBL. Students require orientation to the role of the learner in a PBL setting, and must work through potential discrepancies in expectations and goals for learning. Student learning seems to be connected to the effectiveness of the case as well as the functioning of the group. It is difficult to use as a teaching technique when the class size is large.

Questioning and Socratic Questioning In Nursing Education

    Questioning is an expression of inquiry an interrogative sentence, phrase, or gesture that invites or calls for a reply. Socratic questioning involves probing questioning to analyze an individual’s thinking. This strategy can be completed online or in the classroom. When using IPE methods, be sure that all students know the “language” of the profession and refrain from using profession specific jargon or slang.

Teaching Tips for Questioning and Socratic Questioning

    Allow sufficient time to construct thought-provoking questions. Faculty need to be prepared to facilitate the discussion that should follow a good questioning period. Student learning is enhanced if a pre class assignment that will lead to adequate student preparation is designed. 

   Questioning can be used spontaneously, as an exploratory strategy, or with issue-specific content. An open, trusting classroom environment is needed. Design questions to assess the various domains of learning. 

    Appropriate phrasing of questions is required so that students do not feel demeaned by the questioning experience. Peer learning can take place with guided peer questioning.

Advantages of Questioning and Socratic Questioning

   Questioning promotes metacognition about conclusions to be drawn, increases interaction between students and faculty, and promotes discussion from multiple points of view. It allows students to discuss concepts from their own experiences and discloses underlying assumptions. 

    Questioning increases the articulation of evidence, stimulates students to ask higher order thinking questions, and promotes a higher level of problem-solving skills. Learning is transferred from the classroom to the clinical environment and promotes thinking skills to enhance test taking abilities.

Disadvantages of Questioning and Socratic Questioning

    Questioning presumes a comprehensive knowledge of content. Pre class preparation by student and faculty must be thorough. Students cannot rely on a simple recitation of facts.

Reflection and Journal Writing In Nursing Education

   Through this strategy students detail personal experiences and connect them to learning outcomes. The most frequent use of journaling is connecting classroom theories and curriculum objectives to actual practice situations. 

    Oral and written reflections are equally as effective. This strategy may be completed online, and is suited for group, peer, or inter professional learning assignments.

Teaching Tips for Reflection and Journal Writing

    Set clear expectations for journal writing so that students know what is expected. Using different approaches to journal writing (e.g., writing learning objectives, summary of the experience, a diary, and focused argument) may increase student interest in the assignment. 

    Thoughtful feedback (not necessarily lengthy feedback) from the teacher is important to student learning. Group discussions about the journals and what students are saying may increase learning for all students. Using specific thought-provoking questions in the journal enhances metacognitive thinking.

   Students may need to be taught how to conduct reflective exercises. Reflective journals are most often not graded with a letter grade. If so, grading rubrics will set clear expectations and provide guidelines for grading uniformly.

Advantages of Reflection and Journal Writing 

   Reflection promotes learning from experiences and helps students learn how to transfer facts from one context to another. It encourages students to think about clinical experiences in relation to didactic course content. Student-centered learning is especially valuable to adult learners. 

    Reflection is helpful in demonstrating how to become a lifelong learner. It stimulates metacognitive thinking and provides a feedback loop between teacher and student so teaching emphasis can be modified to enhance student learning. It can be used for all levels of nursing education.

Disadvantages of Reflection and Journal Writing

    Educators may want to revert to the expert role rather than concentrating on the students’ experiences; student-directed learning may frustrate some teachers and may stimulate unresolved conflict within some students. 

    Faculty need to direct student learning through questioning and discussion that may cover topics in which they are not prepared. Students may see it as only a required exercise and not take the time to make appropriate use of the learning opportunity. 

    There is a high time cost for faculty to construct reflection guidelines, read student reflections, and help individual students process their reflections; there is a high time cost for students to complete reflections.

Astin's Theory for Student Engagement 

    Student engagement is founded on Astin’s (1999) theory of student involvement and on the principles of Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) seven principles of good practice in education, which include: 

(1) encourage contact between students and faculty

(2) develop reciprocity and cooperation among students

(3) encourage active learning

(4) give prompt feedback

(5) emphasize time on task

(6) communicate high expectations

(7) respect diverse talents and ways of learning

    Evidence of the learning outcomes of student engagement over the years can be seen in research conducted by NSSE (2013) and CCSSE (2014). Student engagement can be seen in a number of quality indicators leading to improved learning, which include:

(1) academic challenge

(2) learning with peers

(3) experiences with faculty

(4) the campus environment

(5) high-impact learning experiences

(6) academic advising

(7) learning with technology. 

Blooms Knowledge Dimensions

    Bloom’s knowledge dimensions consist of four major types of knowledge: 

(1) factual

(2) conceptual

(3) procedural

(4) metacognitive

    When selecting teaching strategies, nurse educators may use this framework as a guideline in choosing the appropriate strategy for the knowledge dimensions. A number of select strategies are listed in this chapter, with the advantages and disadvantages of each, in relation to the knowledge types. 

    The evidence is growing to explicate the use of student engagement and active learning strategies, and nurse educators will want to be discerning about the nature of the evidence in choosing the best fit for the learning environment to prepare graduates at all levels for the complexities of today’s health care system.

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