Teaching ,Teaching Principles and Maximum of Teaching

Afza.Malik GDA

What Are Teaching and Teaching Principles 

Teaching , Teaching Principles and Maximum of Teaching

Teaching is defined under the philosophical views of  philosophers and its principles under the education concerns.

Teaching Definition

    Some of the selected definitions of teaching based on previous teaching behavior are as follows:

    1. “Teaching is a close contact between a teacher, with a more mature personality, and a student, with a less mature personality. In the educational process, the teacher, through her close contact, helps to develop the student's personality." - H.C. Morrison, 1934

 Morrison's teaching can be defined by considering authoritarian teaching behavior. Here he saw the teacher as a more mature personality and the student as a less mature personality. In the educational process, the teacher, through his close contact, helps in the development of the student's personality. In authoritarian teaching behavior, the teacher has the primary place and the student the secondary one. The teacher is seen as the ideal role model for students to copy. Here the student becomes a passive listener.

    2. "Teaching is an interactive process that primarily involves classroom conversations that take place between teacher and students and take place during certain definable activities." -Edmund Amidon 1967

 “Teaching is an interactive process. Interaction means the participation of both the teacher and the student, and both benefit. This interaction occurs to achieve the desired ends.” – Ned A. Flanders 1970

 "Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence directed at changing the behavioral potential of another person." Dutch quota 1962

 The above definitions of teaching given by Amidon, Flanders, and Gage can be made on the basis of democratic teaching behavior. They put more emphasis on interpersonal influence or the process of interaction between teachers and students. The goal of the lesson is to change the behavior of the students.

    3. "Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of the situation in which there are gaps and obstacles that an individual seeks to overcome and learn from - John Brubacher, 1939

Brubacher's definition is based on the teaching of laissez-faire. This allocates more space to the student. This is usually child or student centered. This shows that the student is more active than the teacher. The teacher's job is to create the situation for the student. The teacher leaves the students alone. Here the students, but not the teachers, decide what they want to do and how to do it. This type of teaching can even be organized on a reflective level.

Teaching behavior has several dimensions, including the logic of teaching, the technology of teaching, and the semantics of teaching. Among them, teaching technology stands out with a lot of education in India. According to our social conditions, the following definitions are the most appropriate.

Teaching is a system of actions involving an actor, a desired goal, and a situation involving two sets of factors, those over which the actor has no control (class size, classroom size, and physical characteristics of students). , etc.) and those that do can be modified (ways of asking questions, almost instructions, and ways of structuring the information or ideas collected).

-BO Smith 1963 BO Smith, a famous educational technologist, defined teaching broadly as "teaching is a system of actions designed to induce learning through interpersonal relationships." He seems more pragmatic in his teaching approach than him.The definition of it contains the following three elements:

• Teaching is a system of actions.

• Teaching is purposeful action.

• The lesson takes place in a situation consisting of controllable and uncontrollable factors.

Thus, teaching is the activity that influences learning, but interpersonal relationships are an essential situation. The main focus of the lessons is to allow the student to learn in all kinds of situations. But the nature of the interpersonal relationship can vary from one situation to another. 

Teaching refers to activities designed and implemented to bring about behavioral change in students (students).

Teaching Principles

1. Lessons must have clearly defined goals and objectives.

2. Teaching concepts must address the aptitude, interests and abilities of the students, as teaching is student-centred.

3. In order for teaching to be effective, it must take into account the individual differences of the student or learner. Students learn more effectively when they study in their own environment.

4. Teaching is always social in content. You can never program in a vacuum.

5. The teaching must be correlated with the various ideas and events, ie a correlation can be made between present events and the past.

6. Instruction should emphasize the student's active participation in all stages and steps of teaching and learning. Active learning with maximum student participation is more rewarding and sustainable.

7. Cooperation between teachers and students is essential in teaching and learning.

8. In the classroom of some students who have some learning difficulties, some remedial or compensatory or additional tuition.

9. When teaching, there must be an appropriate physical and social environment in the classroom to motivate students.

10. Planning in the classroom is very important, which includes taking lesson notes, providing lesson materials and developing strategies for proper lesson management.

 11. The teaching process, to be effective, must use the appropriate tools, strategy, and tact (planned tactics).

12. A teacher must be very imaginative and adept at adapting himself and his teaching to the demands of teaching-learning environments.

13. A variety of teaching aids and strategies should be adopted to motivate and sustain students' interests.

14. The teacher must keep the class active for the holistic development of the students' personality. In addition to specific learning, qualities of stability and introversion are acquired by individuals.

15. The teacher must embrace the principles of play form related to learning by doing, joy, freedom, contentment, and inner and outer peace. The apprentice learns things by doing something.

16. The teacher must do everything possible to motivate all students in the classroom in a way that stimulates interest and leads to concentration and willingness to work. The motivated student is more likely to learn than the unmotivated student.

17. The lessons must enable the student to work independently and without the teacher in later phases (self-training). Good study habits are very fruitful.

18. Teaching is encouragement, guidance, guidance and encouragement to learn.

19. There are various things or ideas that come up in teaching. They must fit together and be connected to each other.

 20. Alternation of rest and recovery should be provided to avoid or prevent or reduce fatigue, inattention and monotony.

21. There should be appropriate feedback and reinforcement.

22. Instruction must train the student's senses, ie observation, discernment, identification, generalization and application.

23. There must be a group dynamic climate. or created in the classroom environment.

 24. Students should have the opportunity to explore things and events and find cause and effect relationships.

25. Practicing in a variety of settings expands the range of situations in which learning can be applied.

26. Whether it is better to learn from one part to the other or from all to one part and whether all learning takes place in small steps, progressively or in larger blocks is an open question (read teaching maxims).

Maximum of Teaching

    The maxims of teaching are of great help in order to achieve the inclusion and active participation of the students in the teaching-learning process. They arouse the students' interest and motivate them to learn. They make learning effective, inspiring, interesting and meaningful. A good teacher must be very familiar with them.

 Teaching a lesson comes from:

1. The known to the unknown.

2. Simple to complex

3. Overview in detail.

4. From easy to difficult.

5. From the concrete to the abstract

6. From the particular to the general

7. From undefined to defined

8. Empirical to relational

9. Psychologically too logical.

10. Everything to share.

11. From near to far.

12. From Analysis to Synthesis.

13. Real to representative.

14. Deductive to inductive.

15. From inductive to deductive.

16. Parts of the whole

17. Observation for justification.

18. Familiar to unfamiliar surroundings.

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