Faculty And Students In Clinical Learning In Health Education

Afza.Malik GDA

Students In Clinical Learning  In Education

Faculty And Students In Clinical Learning  In Health education

Clinical Course Faculty Teaching Strategies and Techniques In Health Education, Clinical Faculty Perspectives of What Does Not Work, Students' Perspectives of What Teachers Do to Help Them Learn, Students' Perspectives of What Teachers Do That Does Not Help Them Learn, Faculty and Students In Distance Education Courses,Distant Faculty Perspectives of What Does Not Work

   Clinical courses consisted of courses in which there was a clinical component in addition to the didactic component. Both undergraduate and graduate faculty and students were surveyed. Faculty were asked to provide tips and techniques for clinical courses, and also to indicate what does not work in clinical courses. Students were asked what teachers do to help them learn and what teachers do that does not help them learn.

    Distance education courses were those in which the course was offered with a physical distance between faculty and students, through interactive web-based learning or through the use of other technology. Faculty were asked to provide tips and techniques for distance education courses, and also to indicate what does not work in distance education courses. Students were asked what teachers do to help them learn and what teachers do that does not help them learn.

Clinical Course Faculty Teaching Strategies and Techniques In Health Education

  1.  Address student fears and earn trust and respect  
  2. Be patient and offer guidance to enhance student learning
  3. Case presentation
  4. Case studies
  5. Case studies with simulated patients
  6. Challenge but do not overwhelm students with a clinical assignment
  7. Clinical conferences
  8. Communicate the plan for each class, including break times
  9. Communicate via email to post announcements and changes in the schedule
  10. Competency-based education tools
  11. Convey a nonthreatening demeanor
  12. Create a nurturing environment
  13. Create learning experiences where students are not bogged down by staff demands
  14. Demonstration lectures
  15. Demonstrations
  16. Discuss case scenarios
  17. Do not give all the lecture notes to students ahead of time, so that they are encouraged to pay attention
  18. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of each student daily
  19. Examples from clinical practice
  20. Faculty engagement with students
  21. Foster self-esteem
  22. Get to know students before taking them to the clinical area
  23. Give a practice math test so students know what to expect
  24. Give clear guidelines and expectations
  25. Give constructive feedback with specificity on how to improve
  26. Grade contracting
  27. Group learning
  28. Guide independent practice of procedures before clinical application
  29. Guide students to assess and document from a holistic perspective
  30. Guide students to identify their own learning needs and set goals for their clinical day
  31. Guide students to not prejudge patients
  32. Help students analyze their thinking underlying an error that they have made
  33. Help students learn to think for themselves by being accountable as caregivers
  34. Implement roundtable discussion after each clinical course, where students share salient experiences
  35. Include stories from the teacher's practice that illustrate important points
  36. Include student exercises as part of the class
  37. Include visuals in presentations
  38. Involve students in learning
  39. Lecture
  40. Maintain good relationships with clinical staff so that the environment is supportive of learning
  41. Morning rounds to each assigned client
  42. Ongoing student evaluation with a great deal of feedback, both positive and developmental
  43. Participate as an expert in the practice area where students are learning
  44. Point out subtle differences in practice
  45. Power Point presentations with handouts of the slides as study guides
  46. Practice so that the teacher walks the walk as well as talks the talk
  47. Practice what is preached
  48. Preceptor ships in clinical setting
  49. Proofread and edit notes with the student before they are written on the chart
  50. Provide a nurturing environment
  51. Provide clear objectives
  52. Provide handouts for students
  53. Provide a highly structured environment
  54. Provide opportunities for students to learn from each other as well as from the teacher
  55. Provide opportunities for students to observe the teacher in practice
  56. Provide repeated exposure to important content
  57. Provide students with opportunities to explore many ways of intervening
  58. References, including web resources
  59. Reinforcement of learning
  60. Repeat very important points several times through out the lecture
  61. Respect each student
  62. Role model interactions with students and patients
  63. Role play
  64. Schedule a test review session after each test so students can evaluate their own learning
  65. Sequence learning tasks
  66. Show enthusiasm for teaching
  67. Spend time in pre-conference reviewing each student's care plan for the day
  68. Stay available to the student
  69. Stay current in practice
  70. Student presentations
  71. Support student self-evaluation on a weekly basis
  72. Take time to help students with a procedure by guiding them through it
  73. Team building activities
  74. Tell stories
  75. Use a scavenger hunt to orient students to the new hospital unit
  76. Use as many pictures as possible in Power Point slides
  77. Use contracting for student learning
  78. Use experts
  79. Use humor when possible
  80. Use journaling
  81. Use multiple teaching modalities
  82. Use pictures from the Web
  83. Use simulations
  84. Use Socratic method to assist students to develop problem solving skills
  85. Use the Internet
  86. When many students fail to perform as the teacher expects, review in detail in formation they have been given
  87. Work with students in order to provide a richer clinical experience 

Clinical Faculty Perspectives of What Does Not Work

  1. A clinical environment that promotes fear
  2. All lectures, all of the time
  3. Clinical objectives that are not clearly written
  4. Enhancing one's power by being overly aggressive with students
  5. Evaluating students before they have time to learn
  6. Group projects where some do more of their share of work and others do less
  7. Increasing student anxiety by talking down to students and being overly critical
  8. Instructor who is not clinically competent
  9. Instructor who lets the students go at their own pace
  10. Lack of patience in guiding students
  11. Long class days
  12. Long videotaped lectures
  13. Prejudging a student by appearance or rumors from other faculty
  14. Providing expectations that are not clear
  15. Surprises on clinical evaluation because students have been mislead by positive faculty remarks
  16. Class size too large
  17. Videos longer than 5-10 minutes

Students' Perspectives of What Teachers Do to Help Them Learn

  1. Answer questions in detail
  2. Apply text material to real life situations through examples
  3. Are clear about expectations
  4. Are organized and prepared for learning experience
  5. Are patient and let the student work through problems without telling the answers
  6. Ask questions to focus the group on discussion
  7. Ask the question, “Why?”
  8. Build trust in the teacher-student relationship
  9. Discuss clinical situations, including what to do and why the steps are important
  10. Discuss student strengths and weaknesses individually
  11. Display an open personality
  12. Encouragement involvement and interaction
  13. Encourage students by telling them that they are doing a good job
  14. Engage in one-to-one discussion
  15. Expect the most from students
  16. Explain equipment in detail
  17. Facilitate learning
  18. Focus on student success
  19. Functions as a role model that shows students how to practice
  20. Give immediately
  21. Go into the patient's room with the student for the first few times
  22. Have a knowledge base and expertise
  23. Have student exchange experiences at the end of each clinical day
  24. Help students focus on the patient from a holistic perspective
  25. Help students to go beyond the traditional textbook
  26. Incorporate different learning methods
  27. Offer constructive criticism
  28. Patiently talk the student through performance of a procedure
  29. Provide copies of notes and stick to the syllabus
  30. Provide a framework for learning and expectations
  31. Provide hands on experiences
  32. Provide nursing knowledge and reinforce theory with an emphasis on critical thinking
  33. Provide office hours
  34. Provide study guides to show important information
  35. Relate clinical stories and connect the story to what is being studied
  36. Relieve stress through humor, caring, and compassion
  37. Stay calm
  38. Review procedures with students before entering the patient's room
  39. Start discussions that make you think
  40. Stay focused on topic content
  41. Tell stories about real patients
  42. Use case studies incorporating theory and critical thinking to arrive at a solution
  43. Use variety of resources
  44. Use visual tools
  45. Willing to work one-on-one with students at feedback

Students' Perspectives of What Teachers Do That Does Not Help Them Learn

  1. Adding to the students' nervousness
  2. Not being approachable
  3. Assuming everyone knows the terminology
  4. Assuming students already know the content
  5. Assume students have acquired information in past courses
  6. Being unprepared
  7. Breathing down students back by staring at them
  8. Correcting students by yelling at them in front of the patient and family
  9. Demeaning students
  10. Drawing lectures from limited resources
  11. Expecting students to read the teacher's mind
  12. Expecting the student to answer a question quickly
  13. Failing to explain concepts related to the slides
  14. Failing to use current technology
  15. Not having patience with students
  16. Injecting negativity into the learning experience
  17. Involving students in group work when the information needed to do the work is not provided
  18. Lectures all of the time
  19. Making students buy five textbooks and only use one of them
  20. Omitting practical information in clinical course lectures
  21. Not providing enough lecture time on assigned readings
  22. Not providing more days and longer hours for clinical practice
  23. Reading from lecture notes
  24. Reading from Power Point slides
  25. Requiring study guides for each of the areas covered in the course
  26. Requiring too much reading
  27. Straying from topic
  28. Telling student to “figure it out”
  29. Throwing students into unexpected situations
  30. Use of negative talk

Faculty and Students In Distance Education Courses

  1. Anticipate problems with the technology
  2. Avoid communicating unnecessary information and communicate often
  3. Be available
  4. Call on students who do not respond in the chat room
  5. Check all websites to which you refer students
  6. Create diverse course activities
  7. Demonstrate mutual respect for other faculty team members
  8. Demonstrate proficiency with information technology
  9. Develop teaching skills
  10. Engage the students in active learning
  11. Get to know the students
  12. Give detailed and specific instructions
  13. Identify a portion of class grade for participation
  14. Integrate activities that foster student interaction with faculty and peers
  15. Limit number of students in a chat room
  16. Link to other on-line information
  17. Offer synchronous group work assignments
  18. Participate as teacher and producer of the course
  19. Plan content from back to front
  20. Post the structural components of the course
  21. Post weekly course notes
  22. Promote student peer support
  23. Provide active learning activities
  24. Provide clear online instructions for each assignment
  25. Provide a framework for student lifelong learning
  26. Provide group work online
  27. Provide rapid response to questions
  28. Provide step-by-step plan for student success
  29. Put faculty and student addresses on the webpage
  30. Require group work and projects
  31. Require weekly reflections
  32. Review course content
  33. Seek peer support and feedback
  34. Use all of the facilities and resources available
  35. Use case studies and scenarios
  36. Use exercises to help the students learn online technology
  37. Distant Faculty Perspectives of What Does Not Work
  38. Assigning an excessive amount of work
  39. Avoiding long explanations of assignments
  40. Displaying indifference to students
  41. Failure to attend to student group participation
  42. Giving busy work to students
  43. Post unrelated materials on the course website
  44. Treating the course as self-study rather than distance education
  45. Using excessive Power Point slides
  46. Using passive learning strategies
  47. Waiting until the last minute to put course materials online

Students' Perspectives of What Faculty Do to Help Them Learn

  1. Be as clear as possible about what is expected
  2. Discuss various topics on a discussion board so that all can see the discussion
  3. Encourage open communication
  4. Encourage student responsibility for assignments
  5. Give direction for further development
  6. Give feedback on work that has been completed
  7. Touch base with students frequently
  8. Keep students involved in learning by asking poll questions
  9. Make course announcements available to everyone
  10. Provide timely responses to questions
  11. Provide detailed written responses to assignments
  12. Provide for interaction with all members of the class
  13. Provide online opportunities for student contact outside of class
  14. Provide students with a way to reach each other in the class
  15. Recognize busy schedules of students
  16. Repeat questions before giving the answer
  17. Space out assignments over the term

Causing anxiety by not answering student questions

  1. Not communicating with the students regularly
  2. Not providing feedback
  3. Not returning assignments or answering questions in a timely manner
  4. Giving assignments that are difficult to understand
  5. Giving reading assignments that are overwhelming
  6. Not being available for immediate personal assistance
  7. Providing unclear answers to questions
  8. Putting too much responsibility on the student for learning

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