Case Study Seminars and Group Discussion In Nursing Education

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Nursing Education and  Case Study Seminars & Group Discussion

Case Study Seminars and  Group Discussion In Nursing Education

What Is Case Studies and Usefulness In Nursing Education,What Is Case Studies and Usefulness In Nursing Education,What Is Group Discussion and Usefulness In Nursing Education.

What Is Case Studies and Usefulness In Nursing Education

    The case study approach offers learners an opportunity to become thoroughly acquainted with a patient situation before discussing patient and family needs and identifying health-related problems. Case studies lead to the development of analytical and problem-solving skills, exploration of complex issues, and application of new knowledge and skills in the clinical practice arena. 

    Additionally, case studies increase learner motivation and engagement and help to develop reading, writing, and listening skills as learners work on teams to make decisions based on their problem solving skills (Bonney, 2015; Brattseva & Kovalev, 2015). 

    An example of the creative use of this teaching method with staff is arranging a panel presentation by patients who are coping with a specific illness or problem. Following the panel, a group session is most beneficial in particular, for affective learning. This was found to be a useful approach to breaking down the negative stereotypes of persons living with AIDS on the part of some healthcare workers (Peters & Connell, 1991).

What Is Case Studies and Usefulness In Nursing Education

    Interactions in seminar groups are stimulated by the posing of questions by the educator. The educational format of seminars consists of several sessions in which a group of staff nurses or students, facilitated by an educator, discuss questions and issues that emerge from assigned readings on a topic of practical relevance (Jaarsma et al., 2009). 

    Seminars should be designed so that each learner reads an assignment and considers questions prior to the discussion; With such preparation, all learners can actively participate in the discussion. The active engagement of sharing ideas and thoughts provides the learners with a deeper understanding of the content. 

What Is Group Discussion and Usefulness In Nursing Education

    When disagreements arise, students are expected to search for new explanations and new justifications of knowledge (Jaarsma et al., 2009).Preset behavioral objectives should be the focus when using guided, collaborative, and small group discussions. These objectives drive the achievement of the learning outcomes for the interaction and should be presented at the beginning of each session. 

    Careful adherence to them will prevent the discussion from becoming an aimless wandering of ideas or a forum for the strongest group member to exppound on his or her opinions and feelings (Billings & Halstead, 2015). The group, functioning as a “dynamic whole,” motivates its members to move toward accomplishing one or more common goals (Johnson et al., 2007). 

    The educator's role is to act as a facilitator to keep the discussion focused and to tie important points together. The educator must be well versed in the subject matter to field questions, to move the discussion along in the direction intended, and to give appropriate feedback (Miller & Stoeckel, 2016).

    Educator involvement and control of the process will vary with the needs of the group members. Group discussion requires the educator to be able to tolerate less structure and organization than other teaching methods, such as lecture or one-to-one instruction. In addition, the group itself must have some knowledge of the content before this method can be effective (Billings & Halstead, 2015); otherwise, the discussion will be based on pooled ignorance. 

    For example, a group of staff with a significant amount of practical knowledge and expertise may need little input while they work out a complex patient problem. In contrast, a new group of patients or family members with little understanding of a topic will need to access information directly from the educator or another source before they can meaningfully participate in problem solving as part of the discussion process.

    No matter which type of instructional approach outlined in this section is used to engage learners in group discussion, the educator's responsibility is to make sure that every member of the group has interpreted information correctly, because failure to do so will lead to conclusions based on faulty data. 

    Although diversity within a group is beneficial, a wide range of literacy skills, states of anxiety, and experiences with acute and chronic conditions within the group may lead to difficulty in meeting any one member's needs. For this reason, patient groups need to be prescreened.

    Carkhuff (1996), Musolino and Mostrom (2005), and Wainwright, Shepard, Harman, and Stephens (2010) address the reflection-on-action technique for workgroups as learning groups to develop the critical thinking skills of nursing staff in the workplace. With this approach, the educator facilitates staff in critically analyzing their actions and determining whether a viable alternative to their action exists. 

    Such an approach helps learners “learn to learn.”It is important for the educator to maintain trust within the group. Everyone must feel safe and comfortable enough to express his or her point of view, otherwise the relationship between the educator and the learners will break down, which creates an environment unsuitable for learning. 

    One helpful approach is for the educator to tell the group at the beginning of the session that the goal is to hear from all members by asking for their input and points of view during the discussion period. Learners who tend to dominate the discussion should be requested to hold questions that can be handled privately at the end of class, because these inquiries are important but unique to their circumstances. 

    Respectful attention and tolerance toward others should be modeled by the educator and required of all group members. Of course, this consideration does not preclude correcting errors or disagreements. A clear message must be given that although personal opinions may be debatable, the inherent value of what each member says and the member's right to participate are guaranteed (Ridley, 2007).

    Teaching people in groups rather than individually allows the educator to reach numbers of learners at the same time. The group discussion method is economically beneficial from a time-efficiency perspective when compared with educating each learner individually. With healthcare costs rising, this method should be considered as an efficient and effective method to teach simultaneously individuals who have similar learning needs, such as information to prepare for childbirth or cardiac bypass surgery. 

    In a study on the effects of educational interventions on patient satisfaction, Oermann (2003) reported that a group of patients in a waiting room of an outpatient care center were educated via a videotape about glaucoma, which was then followed by group interaction with an educator to discuss key points and answer questions. This approach led to higher satisfaction with the education received during their visit.

     Discussion is effective in assisting learners to identify resources and to internalize the topic being discussed by helping them to reflect on its personal meaning (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005). Through group work, members share common concerns and receive reinforcement from one another. The idea that everyone is in the same boat or if one person can do it so can the others serves to stimulate motivation for learning resulting from peer support.

    Group discussion has proved particularly helpful to patients and their families dealing with chronic illness. This teaching method is most effective during the accommodation stage of psychological adjustment to chronic illness, because the interactions reduce isolation and foster identification with others who are in similar circumstances (Fredette, 1990; Olsson, Boyce, Toumbourou, & Sawyer, 2005). 

    Discussion in a group offers members a forum in which to share information for cognitive growth as well as an opportunity to learn self-efficacy. The resulting increase in the confidence levels of patients enhances their ability to handle an illness (Cooper, Booth, Fear, & Gill, 2001; Deakin, McShane, Cade, & Williams, 2005; Lorig & Gonzalez, 1993).

    The group process informs people about how to respond to situations, improves their coping mechanisms, and explores ways to incorporate needed changes into their lives. Group self-management education for people with diabetes, for example, has been found in some instances not only to be more cost effective but also to result in greater treatment satisfaction and to be slightly better in supporting lifestyle changes (Tang, Funnell, & Anderson, 2006). 

    Be aware that third-party reimbursement for some types of group patient education programs may be difficult to obtain when the traditional fee-for-service payment system is not in place. Nevertheless, these programs may be economically valuable in preventing hospitalization or reducing time in acute care. Documenting these benefits based on measurable outcomes can justify the importance of group discussion as a cost effective method of instruction.

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