Nurses Educator Functions and Role In Nursing Education

Nurses Educator 2

Functions and Role of Educator In Nursing Education

Nurses Educator Functions and Role In Nursing Education

What Is Role Of Nurse Educator ,Factors Affecting the Role of Nurse Educator,Teaching Variable and Nurse Educator Role ,Approaches for Effective Lectures In Nursing Education,Speech Variables Needed for Effective Lecture.

What Is Role of Nurse Educator 

    The nurse educator functions in the vital role of teacher by facilitating, guiding, and supporting the learner in acquiring new knowledge. attitudes, and skills. Even though an educator may tend to rely on one teaching method, he or she rarely adheres to that single method in a pure fashion. Instead, various methods are often used in combination with one another. 

    For example, an educator may choose lecture as the primary teaching approach but also allow the opportunity for question-and-answer periods and short discussion sessions throughout the lecture.

Factors Affecting the Role of Nurse Educator

Deciding which method(s) to select must be based on a consideration of such major factors as the following:

  • Audience characteristics (size, diversity. learning style preferences)
  • Educator's expertise as a teacher
  • Objectives of learning potential for achieving learning outcomes
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Setting for teaching
  • Evolving technology

Teaching Variable and Nurse Educator Role    

These and many other variables are addressed in the following review of the methods of instruction available for teaching and learning.

Whats is Lecture

    Lecture can be defined as a highly structured method by which the educator verbally transmits information directly to a group of learners for the purpose of instruction. It is one of the oldest and most often used approaches to teaching. The word lecture comes from the medieval Latin term Legere, which means “to read.”

    The lecture method has been highly criticized in recent years because, in its purest form. the lecture format allows for only minimal Also, critics of the lecture method have specifically expressed concern about the passive role of learners (DeYoung, 2014). However, as Brookfield (2006) points out, “An abused method calls into question the expertise of those abusing it, not the validity of the method itself” (p. 99).

     Therefore, if a lecture is well organized and delivered effectively, it can be a very useful method of instruction (Bain, 2004; Bartlett, 2003; Brookfield, 2006; Woodring & Woodring, 2014).

    The lecture format is useful in describing patterns, highlighting main ideas, and presenting unique ways of viewing information, such as introducing an agency's mission statement to new nursing staff orientees or explaining diabetes mellitus to a group of patients. 

    The lecture should not be employed, however, to give people the same information that they could read independently at another time and place. It is the lecturer's expertise, both in theory and experience, that contributes significantly to the learner's understanding of a topic. 

    The lecture is an ideal way to provide foundational background information as a basis for follow-up group discussions. Also, it is a means to summarize data and current research findings not available elsewhere (Boyd, Gleit, Graham, & Whitman, 1998; Brookfield, 2006). In addition, the lecture can easily be supplemented with instructional materials, such as printed handouts and audiovisual tools.

Approaches for Effective Lectures In Nursing Education

    Lecturing is an acquired skill that is learned and perfected over time, and it is a more complex task than commonly thought (Young & Diekelmann, 2002). Specific strategies exist to strengthen the effectiveness of a lecture (Cantillon, 2003). According to Silberman (2006), five approaches to the effective transfer of knowledge during a lecture are the following:

    Use opening and summary statements. At the beginning of the lecture, present major points to help learners become oriented to the subject and at the end provide conclusions to remind learners about the main points made. Present key terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to some key words that act as verbal cues or memory jogs Offer examples. Whenever possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture.

   Use analogies. If possible, compare the content that is being presented to the knowledge that learners may already have. Use visual backups. Use a variety of media to help learners see as well as hear what is being said.

    Each lecture should include three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. These three parts are described in the following subsections (Miller & Stoeckel, 2016; Woodring & Woodring, 2014),

Lecture Introduction 

    During the introduction phase of a lecture, the educator should present learners with an overview of the behavioral objectives related to the lecture topic, along with an explanation as to why these objectives are significant. The use of set (the opening to a presentation) engages learners' attention and focuses the group on the teacher, which creates the stage for learners to be ready to listen (Kowalski, 2004). 

    This technique of set captures attention, clarifies goals and objectives, motivates the learner, and demonstrates the relevance of the content in a way that can stimulate the interest of learners in the subject. For example, prior to a lecture on creative problem solving, the educator might ask each member of the audience to solve a puzzle that requires them to think in a different manner (Kowalski, 2004). 

    Educators might also engage learners' attention by conducting an informal survey of the group or stating the behavioral objectives as questions that will be answered during the body of the lecture.

    If the lecture is one of a series, the educator needs to make a connection with the over-all subject and the topic being presented as well as explain its relationship to previous topics covered in prior lectures and those that will follow. Last, the educator should establish a rapport with the audience by letting his or her personality shine through and by using humor, if appropriate.

 Body of Lecture

    The next portion of the lecture involves the actual delivery of the content related to the topic being addressed. Reading a printed copy of the entire presentation word for word is extremely boring and is a sure way to turn off the audience. Careful preparation is needed so that the important aspects are covered in an organized, accurate, logical, and interesting manner. 

    Examples should be used throughout to enhance the salient points, but extraneous facts and redundant examples should be avoided so as not to reduce the impact of the message. Because the lecture format tends to be a passive approach to learning, the educator can enhance the effectiveness of the presentation by combining it with other teaching methods, such as discussion or question-and-answer sessions, to engage learners to actively participate. 

Conclusion of Lecture

    The educator should include a wrap-up with every lecture. This final section of the lecture format is reserved for summarizing the information provided in the presentation. At this point, the educator can review the major concepts presented. Try to leave some time for questions and answers. 

    During this time, questions asked should be repeated so that the rest of the audience can hear them and understand the response. If time runs short, the educator can limit the question-and-answer session but then welcome immediate follow-up by meeting with interested individuals alone or in a smaller group or by suggesting relevant readings.

Speech Variables Needed for Effective Lecture

    The educator's speaking skills are also important to the delivery of a lecture. According to Jacobs (2009), the following variables of speech need to be considered:

  • Volume Rate
  • Pitch/tone pronunciation
  • Enunciation
  • Proper grammar
  • Avoiding annoying habits such as the use of “ums” Not only are speaking skills important, but body language also should be considered: Demonstrate enthusiasm.
  • Make frequent eye contact with audience. Use posture and movement.
  • Convey self-confidence.
  • Demonstrate professionalism.
  • Use gestures.

    Avoid repetitive movements. Rely on head and hands to emphasize points and to keep the audience's attention.

    Nervous or inexperienced educators should practice first in front of a mirror, a video camera, or a colleague (Germano, 2003). They should outline just the key points of their presentation on index cards, handouts, overhead projections, or PowerPoint slides. During the actual lecture, they can use this outline information to elaborate on the topic by giving examples and further explanations.

    Educators should address a large audience as if speaking to an individual listener (Woodring & Woodring, 2014). Also, they should move around the stage or room and vary their presentation style and tone of voice to avoid monotony. Demonstrating enthusiasm, expertise, and interest in the topic will capture and hold the audience's attention. Finally, educators should be sure to keep within the time allotted. Lectures of long duration can result in loss of attention and boredom on the part of the learners. 

    Using audiovisual materials, such as a video, a podcast, an ARS, or PowerPoint slides, also can add variety to a lecture. The wide-spread availability of technology makes it easy to enhance a presentation-but only if the technology is used wisely. When developing PowerPoint slides, for example, educators should adhere to the following general guidelines (DeGolia, 2016; Evans, 2000):

  • Do not put all content on slides, but include only the key concepts to supplement the presentation.
  • Use the largest font possible.
  • Do not exceed 25 words per slide
  • Choose colors that provide a high level of contrast between background and text when presented in a large room with bright lights.
  • Use graphics (figures and tables) to summarize important points, to succinctly present information, or to share large amounts of numerical data.
  • Do not overdo the use of animation (moving figures), which can be very distracting to the audience.

    Overall, it is important to keep the following points in mind: Make sure that the visual aids are large enough and positioned well enough for all to see, and keep them simple and easy to understand (Jacobs, 2009).

T    hanks to new technologies, lectures are now being delivered to an even wider variety of learners in locations remote from one another. Distance learning is an ideal way to maximize resources and to transmit current information to people separated by space and time. Through this strategy, the cost, time, and inconvenience of travel no longer can keep an audience from meeting face to face with an expert (Cook et al., 2008; DeGolia, 2016).

    Although the lecture method is considered efficient and cost effective, the effort put into its design and delivery should not be determined just by calculating the educator-learner ratio of contact hours. Educators must take into consideration other factors, such as educator preparation time, the frequency with which the same material needs to be repeated to different audiences, and follow-up time required to individualize learning and evaluate outcomes.

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