Self Instruction as Teaching Method In Nursing Education

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Modules Based Self Instruction as Teaching Method In Nursing Education

Self Instruction as Teaching Method In Nursing Education

What are Self Instructions,Self Instruction Modules In Nursing Education,Benefits of Self Instruction Modules In Nursing Education.

What are Self Instructions

    Self instruction is a teaching method used by the educator to provide or design instructional activities that guide the learner in independently achieving the objectives of learning. Each self study module usually focuses on one topic, and the hallmark of this format is independent study. 

    The self instruction method is effective for learning in the cognitive and psychomotor domains, where the goal is to master information and apply it to practice. Self study also can be an effective adjunct for introducing principles and step-by-step guidelines prior to demonstration of a psychomotor skill.

    This teaching method is sometimes difficult to identify as a singular entity because of the variety of terms used to describe it, such as mini course, self-instructional package, individualized learning activities, self-directed learning, and programmed instruction. For the purposes of this discussion, the term self instruction is used. It is defined as a self-contained educational activity that allows learners to progress by themselves at their own pace (Abruzzese, 1996).

Self Instruction Modules In Nursing Education

    Self instruction modules come in a variety of forms, including, but not limited to, workbooks, study guides, workstations, videotapes, Internet modules, and computer programs. They are specifically designed to be used independently. With this teaching method, the educator serves as a facilitator/resource person to provide motivation and reinforcement for learning. 

Benefits of Self Instruction Modules In Nursing Education

    This method requires less educator time to give information, and each session with the learner is intended to meet individual needs. Some learners and educators resist the self instruction method because it appears to depersonalize the teaching-learning process. That perception is not necessarily valid. Communication can still occur between the educator and the learner, but the focus of instruction is different. 

    The amount of time for direct interaction is more limited than with other methods of teaching such as lecture, group discussion, and one-to-one instruction. This method adheres to the principles of adult education whereby the learner assumes responsibility for learning and is self directed (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011).

   A self instruction module is carefully designed to achieve preset objectives by bringing learners from diverse knowledge and skill backgrounds to a similar level of achievement prior to undertaking the next step in a series of learning activities. For example, a self instructional activity might be made available to educate all staff on new infection control practices in an agency, and clients might learn breast self examination or CPR techniques by using specifically prepared self study materials.

    Modules can be made readily accessible to learners along with any resources that are needed to complete the self-study program. Each self-instruction module needs to contain the following elements:

    An introduction with statement of purpose and directions for how to use the module. A list of prerequisite skills that the learner needs to have to use the module.

    A list of behavioral objectives, which are clear and measurable statements describing which skills the learner is expected to acquire. A pretest to determine whether the learner needs to proceed with the module based on his or her areas of strength or weakness. An identification of resources and learning activities, such as videos, slides, or written materials. 

  • An outline of the actual learning activities that will be presented in small units of discrete information called frames. An estimated total length of time to complete the module. A well designed module is kept relatively short so as not to dampen the motivation to learn.
  • Different presentations for the material based on the objectives and the resources available. For example, information may be given via programmed instruction or through a series of readings. This can be followed by a video presentation of a relevant case study, with the requirement that the learner write a response to what has been read and observed.
  • Periodic self assessments to provide feedback to the learner throughout the module. The user is frequently able to do periodic self-assessments prior to moving on to the next unit. This allows the learner to decide whether the previous information has been processed sufficiently enough to move on to the next unit.

    A post test to evaluate the learner's level of mastery in achieving the objectives. If learners are aware that a posttest needs to be completed, this requirement encourages them to pay attention to the information. Keeping a record of final outcomes is helpful in both staff and client education as documentation of competency, as proof that standards were met, and in planning for continuing education.

    Self instruction represents an attractive alternative to traditional classroom and group learning methods in today's rapidly changing healthcare environment. Hospitals and community agencies are not always able to release staff in large numbers for continuing education programs that are rigidly timed-a constraint that conflicts with the need to share information on the newest advances and documentation of continuing competence of staff. 

    Self instruction modules, therefore, are excellent choices for annual training updates on selected topics or skills that require periodic review to determine competency (Markiewicz & Wells, 1997; O'Very, 1999). The Internet also offers a myriad of continuing education self-instruction modules. Nurse practitioners, for example, can be educated about numerous problems and issues in primary care through use of interactive, realistic case studies. E-mail to and from faculty can facilitate communication (Hayes, Huckstadt, & Gibson, 2000). 

    The information explosion coupled with the rapidly advancing technology of computers has made web-based teaching and learning available for client education, staff development, and student instruction. Self-instruction modules have been found to be cost effective because they are designed for use by large numbers of individuals with minimal and infrequent revisions. 

    It may be less time consuming and more efficient to purchase, rather than produce, a self-instruction module if the information presented in a commercial product is appropriate for the target audience.

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is an individualized method of self-study using technology to deliver an educational activity. CAI allows learners to proceed at their own pace with immediate and continuous feedback on their progress as they respond to a software program. Most computer programs assist the learner in primarily achieving cognitive domain skills (DeYoung, 2014), but psychomotor skills can be effectively taught through a web-enhanced approach (Bluestone et al., 2013; Salyers, 2007). 

    CAI offers consistent presentation of material and around the clock accessibility. This teaching method not only saves time but also accommodates different types of learners. It allows slow learners to repeat lessons as many times as necessary, whereas learners who are already familiar with material can skip ahead to more advanced material (DeYoung, 2014).

    Some concern has been voiced that computer instruction might depersonalize the learning process (DeYoung, 2014). However, the use of CAI does not preclude the educator's availability for guidance in learning. 

    Although this technology delivers content, it allows more time for the educator to concentrate on the personal aspects of individual reinforcement and ongoing assessments of learning. For example, CAI has been used with good patient acceptance for PR colposcopy education (Martin, Hoffman, & Kaminski, 2005). 

    Recently, computer programs, known as interactive health communication applications (IHCAs), have been used by people with chronic diseases. Research findings indicate that IHCAs can improve user knowledge, have a positive effect on social support, lead to better clinical outcomes, and increase self efficacy (a person's belief in his or her capacity to take specific action) when compared to non-users of IHCAS (Murray, Burns, Tai, Lai, & Nazareth, 2005).

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