Selection and Evaluation of Teaching Methods In Nursing Education

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Teaching Methods In Nursing Education Their Selection and Evaluation

Selection and Evaluation of Teaching Methods In Nursing Education

Selection of Teaching Methods In Nursing Education,Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Nursing Education.

Selection of Teaching Methods In Nursing Education

The process of selecting a teaching method requires a prior determination of the behavioral objectives to be accomplished and an assessment of the learners who will be involved in achieving the objectives. Also, consideration must be given to available resources such as time, money, space, and materials to support learning activities as well as the comfort level of the educator using certain teaching methods.

    Educators are at different levels of teaching on the novice-to-expert continuum, which influences their choices of teaching methods. For example, an expert skilled at facilitating small group discussion may be a novice in the design and selection of games. A nurse may be an expert clinician but have only limited education and experience that would enable him or her to be effective in the teaching role. 

    Nurses are expected to teach but may not have adequate time, inclination, energy, or capability for developing the quality and variety of instruction necessary. Teaching is a skill that can be developed in formal academic settings, in continuing education programs, or through guidance by an expert peer mentor.

    Educators tend to focus on a specific teaching method because it is the one they feel most comfortable using without considering all the criteria for selection. There is no one right method, because the best approach depends on many variables, such as the audience, the content to be taught, the setting in which teaching and learning are to take place, and the resources available. 

    For many years, it has been thought that the ideal method for any given situation is the one that best suits the learner's needs, not the educator's preferences. However, as Glenn (2009) and Rogowsky, Calhoun, and Tallal (2015) point out, no strong scientific evidence exists to support the idea that a teaching method should match the learning style(s) of the audience. 

    Instead, learners should be challenged with a variety of learning experiences and educators should worry about matching their instruction with the content they are teaching. Some concepts are best taught through hands-on work, some are best taught through lectures, and some are best taught through group discussion” (Glenn, 2009, para. 16). 

    A novice should begin instruction with very familiar content so that he or she can focus on the teaching process itself and feel more confident in trying out different techniques and strategies for instruction. He or she should ask questions of learners and peers in the evaluation process to determine whether the teaching method chosen was appropriate for accomplishing the behavioral objectives and for meeting the expectations of different learners in terms of their learning needs, learning styles, and readiness to learn .

    Narrow (1979) emphasizes the importance of educators periodically examining their role as educators and assessing the factors of energy, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, which influence the priority they assign to teaching and the ability to teach effectively. The following is a summary of her suggestions that even many years after they were offered-remain very relevant to the teaching role.

    At any given point in time, the educator's energy level is influenced by both psychological and physical factors, such as the amount of satisfaction derived from work, the demands and responsibilities of the educator's professional and personal life, and the educator's state of health. Feelings toward the learner also influence the enthusiasm the educator brings to the teaching-learning situation. 

    Nurse educators may feel drawn to or satisfied with teaching because of the learner's interest in the topic, or academic concerns or anxieties may create a bond between the teacher and the learner. In contrast, if the learners are demanding or display inappropriate behavior, educators may feel negatively about them and find the teaching learning encounter more difficult and less full filling. Ideally, educators will develop the ability to accept individuals without necessarily approving of their behavior.

    Another factor to consider is the educator's comfort with and confidence in the subject matter to be taught. Those who find certain content to be stressful to teach because of a lack of relevant knowledge or skills can increase their understanding of the subject and relieve their stress and apprehension with additional study and practice. This allows them to function more effectively in the teaching role.

    Educators who have difficulty communicating with learners about what they may consider sensitive material, such as sexual behavior, mental illness, abortion, birth defects, disfigurement, terminal illness, and the like, should examine their own feelings, seek support from colleagues, and use resources to help create an effective teaching approach. 

    If the teaching learning process is to be a partnership, not only is it crucial to assess the learner, but it is equally important that the nurse assesses himself or herself as the educator. Often educators fail to take into consideration their own circumstances and needs.

Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Nursing Education

    An important aspect of evaluating any instructional program is to assess the effectiveness of the teaching method (Friedman et al., 2011). Was the option selected as effective, efficient, and appropriately used as possible? Educators should ask five major questions to help decide which teaching method to choose or whether the method of instruction selected should be revised or rejected

1. Does the teaching method help the learners to achieve the stated objectives? This question is the most important criterion for evaluation if the method does not help to accomplish the objectives, then all the other criteria are unimportant. Examine how well the method matches the learning domain of the predetermined objectives. 

2.Will the method expose learners to the necessary information and training so that they can learn the desired behaviors? Is the learning activity accessible and acceptable to the learners who have been targeted? Accessibility includes such issues as the timing of information presentation, the location and setting in which teaching takes place, and the availability of resources and equipment to deliver the message. 

    Clients and their family members need programs to be offered at suitable times and accessible locations. For example, childbirth preparation classes scheduled during the daytime hours likely would not be convenient for expectant couples who are working. So, does the teaching method appeal to the learner(s) in terms of their learning needs, learning style(s), and readiness to learn characteristics? 

3. Is the teaching method efficient given the time, energy, and resources available in relation to the number of learners the educator is trying to reach? To teach large numbers of learners, educators must choose a method that can accommodate groups, such as lecture, discussion sessions, or role play, or a method that can reach many individuals at one time, such as the use of various self instructional formats . Sufficient resources and equipment are needed to adequately deliver the message intended.

    To what extent does the teaching method allow for active participation to accommodate the needs, abilities, and style of the learner? Active participation has been well documented as an approach to increase interest in learning and the retention of information. Evaluate how active learners want to be or can be in the process of gaining knowledge and skills. 

    No one method can satisfy all learners, but adhering to one method exclusively addresses the preferred style of only a segment of the audience.Is the teaching method cost effective? It is vital to examine the cost of educational programs to determine whether similar outcomes might be achieved by using less costly methodologies. 

    In this era of cost containment, employers and insurers want their money invested in patient programs that will yield the best possible outcomes at the lowest price as measured in terms of preventing illness and injury, minimizing the severity and extent of illness, and reducing the length of hospital stays and re-admissions. Healthcare agencies want the best staff performance with the most reasonable use of resources and the least amount of time taken away from actual practice.

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