Stimulate Active Learner Involvement In Nursing Education

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Active Learner Involvement In Nursing Education

Stimulate Active Learner Involvement In Nursing Education

Stimulate Active Learner Involvement,Tools to Displays Learning Material,Guidelines While Using Chalk and Board,Advantages of Using Display Tools In Nursing Education,Disadvantages of Using Display Tools In Nursing Education,Posters Presentation In Nursing Education,Critique on Poster Presentation,Audiovisual Materials Material In Nursing Education.

Stimulate Active Learner Involvement

    Provide the opportunity for immediate testing of psycho motor and cognitive behaviors Allow learners to receive instant feedback Appeal to the kinesthetic (movement-oriented) learner who prefers the hands-on approach to learning

    In terms of their disadvantages, some models may not be suitable for learners with poor abstract thinking skills or visual impairments unless every individual is given the chance to learn about the object using other senses. Also, some models can be fragile, very expensive, bulky to store, and difficult to transport. 

    Unless models are very large, they cannot be observed and manipulated by more than a few learners at any one time. However, this drawback can be overcome by using team teaching and by creating different stations at which to arrange replicas for demonstration purposes (Miller & Stoeckel, 2016).

Tools to Displays Learning Material

    Whiteboards, posters, storyboards, flip charts, and bulletin boards are examples of displays found in most educational settings. In addition, the SMART Board is a large whiteboard that uses touch technology for detecting user input; it is similar in that respect to devices that use personal computing input, such as a mouse or keyboard (SMART, 2009). SMART Boards are growing in popularity but are still costly to purchase.

    Displays are two dimensional objects that serve as useful tools for a variety of teaching purposes. They can be used to convey simple or short messages and to clarify, reinforce, or summarize information on important topics and themes. Although they have been referred to as static instructional tools given that they are often stationary (Haggard, 1989), some displays can be transported, and some can be altered to change the message when necessary. 

    Demonstration tools can effectively achieve behavioral objectives by vividly representing relationships between subjects or objects. Whiteboards, flip charts, and SMART Boards are particularly versatile means of delivering information. Story boards visual tools that use pictures and written text to explain a sequence of events-are effective in providing consistent messages to clients in a simple, easy to understand format (Lowenstein, Foord May, & Romano, 2009) . 

    These board devices are most useful in formal classes, in group discussions, or during brainstorming sessions to spontaneously make drawings or diagrams (with contrasting colored chalk or markers) or to jot down ideas generated from participants while the educator is in the process of teaching. Information can be added, corrected, or deleted quickly and easily while the learners are actively following what the teacher is doing or saying. 

    Such tools are excellent means of encouraging active participation, keeping the learners' attention on the topic at hand, and reinforcing the contributions of others. Flexible and handy, they provide opportunities for the teacher, in an immediate and direct fashion, to organize data, capture ideas, perform on the spot problem solving, and compare various points of view. Also, unlike some other types of visuals, these display tools can allow learners to see parts of a whole picture while assisting the teacher in filling in the gaps.

Guidelines While Using Chalk and Board

    The following are important guidelines suggested by Babcock and Miller (1994) and Miller and Stoeckel (2016) for educators using chalk boards and whiteboards to teach:

  • Be sure writing is legible and large enough to be seen. Step aside and face the learner(s) after putting notes on the board to maintain contact with the audience.
  • Allow learners time to copy or think about the message.
  • Ask a note taker to capture a creative design or record an idea before the contents on the board are erased or changed.

Advantages of Using Display Tools In Nursing Education

The following are some specific advantages of displays as teaching tools:

  • They are a quick way to attract attention and get an idea across. Most are flexible, easily modified, and reusable.
  • Many are portable and easily assembled or disassembled. They stimulate interest or ideas in the observer.
  • They are effective ways of influencing cognitive and affective behaviors.

Disadvantages of Using Display Tools In Nursing Education

In contrast, some of the disadvantages of displays include the following: 

  • They can take up a lot of space. The more static types, such as posters, can be time consuming to have prepared and for that reason tend to be used as displays for a long time, which increases the risk of them becoming outdated. Some displays (eg, posters and bulletin boards) are not suitable for large audiences if information needs to be viewed at the same time.
  • Only limited amounts of information can be included at one time.
  • Displays are not effective for teaching psychomotor skills.
  • They may become too cluttered when a lot of information is placed on them. If permanently mounted, they cannot be transported. The symbolic nature of the message may not be well understood by some learners.

Posters Presentation In Nursing Education

    Although they are a type of display material, posters are addressed separately here because they have become an increasingly popular and important instructional tool (visit www.cdcgov and to search for posters for patient education). Essentially hybrids of print and visual media, posters use the written word along with graphic illustrations. 

    Posters are an effective and reasonable option for conveying information (Daley, 1997; Duchin & Sherwood, 1990; Flournoy, Turner, & Combs, 2000; Moneyham, Ura, Ellwood, & Bruno, 1996; Pulley, Brace, Bernard, & Masys, 2007). They serve as a visual supplement to oral instruction of patients and families in various health care settings, and they are a common format for communicating health information to patients. 

    However, a recent review of multiple studies on the effectiveness of posters in promoting knowledge determined that further evidence is needed to determine how effective they are in comparison to other teaching and learning approaches (llic & Rowe, 2013).Posters can serve as an independent source of information or can be used along with other instructional methods and materials. 

    Some critics view the poster as a passive instructional medium, but if posters are designed and used properly, the message conveyed is brief, con (Daley, 1997; Duchin & Sherwood, 1990; Ilic & Rowe, 2013). Because the primary purpose of a poster is visual stimulation, it is meant to attract attention (Flournoy et al., 2000). Effective posters instill a mental image that may be remembered long after they are seen. 

    This mental image serves as a cue to the viewer to remember the message being delivered. Much like a bumper sticker on a car, effective poster displays can potentially leave lasting impressions that are easily recalled at some future date. FIGURE 12-4 is an excellent example.

    The advantages of posters are that they can be used as a way to reinforce and condense information, and they can be used multiple times for different teaching-learning encounters. For example, when nurses in clinic and office settings are teaching a patient and significant other about osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis), a poster with a series of pictures can show how joints can be affected over time, why pain occurs, and the actions certain treatments have on reducing inflammation. 

    The value of posters is that the messages being conveyed are repeated every time they are viewed (Bach, McDaniel, & Poole, 1994; Daley, 1997; Duchin & Sherwood, 1990; Pulley et al., 2007) and can be used for a variety of purposes such as serving to remind the public of the importance of getting a flu shot. Posters serve as an important teaching tool to help bring about a change of behavior by adding knowledge, reinforcing information, or appealing to attitudes. 

    By using short, simple, and eye-catching imagery, posters ensure that a message can be circulated quickly and simultaneously to several potential learners in a variety of healthcare and community-based settings (Saldana, 2014). These demonstration materials also can be used with individuals and small groups to transmit or reinforce information with or without the teacher present. In addition, they are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce.

    With practice, and with access to computer technology, an educator can become skilled at creating attractive, impressive posters in an efficient and timely manner. Software programs such as Print Shop Deluxe, Paint Shop Pro, Adobe Photoshop, and Microsoft Publisher are excellent resources to produce professional looking visuals. The major disadvantage of posters is that the content in the final product is static and. therefore, may become quickly dated. 

    Also, if the same poster is kept on display for too long, the potential audience may begin to disregard its message.The key to a poster's effectiveness lies in its planning and design. Bushy (1991) states that “good ideas do not speak for themselves...a good poster display cannot rescue a bad idea, but a poor one can easily sink the best idea” (p. 11). In turn, this author highlights important aesthetic considerations when preparing and evaluating poster presentations specifically for research purposes. 

    Duchin and Sherwood (1990) and Bach et al. (1994) provide guide-lines that remain relevant today for developing attractive, simple, yet effective posters that consider variations in learner needs and patient education settings. Bushy (1991) and Duchin and Sherwood (1990) emphasize the application of design elements, such as color, spacing, graphics, lettering, and borders, required to create posters that not only catch the eye but also ensure that the message persists in memory. 

    Also, effective imagery can take the form of graphic designs or photographs, so great artistic skill is not required to create the graphic elements of posters. Simple pictures, such as schematics, outlines, and stick figure drawings, work well and can be created using colored pencils, markers, construction paper, or computer printouts. 

Critique on Poster Presentation

    The ability of a poster to influence behavior or increase awareness can be greatly enhanced by careful consideration of these factors. Because aesthetic appeal is critical in capturing learners' attention, educators should adhere to the following tips when making and critiquing a poster for use as a teaching tool (Bach et al., 1994; Bushy, 1991: Duchin & Sherwood, 1990, Haggard, 1989):

  • Complementary (opposite-spectrum) color combinations are visually appealing.
  • One color should make up as much as 70% of the display. No two colors should be used in equal proportions, and a third color should be used only to accent or highlight printed components such as titles and subheadings. Too many colors make the design appear cluttered and complicated. Because a picture is worth a thousand words, graphics should be used to break up blocks of print.
  • Use simple, high-quality (but not necessarily sophisticated or ornate) drawings or graphics that can be easily understood. Balance the written message with white space (or another background color) and graphics to add variety and contrast.
  • Use simple, high-quality photographs with colored borders and different sizes and shapes. Deliver the written message in common, straightforward language, avoiding unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, or symbols.
  • Adhere to the KISS principle (keep it simple and smart) when using words to decrease length, detail, and crowding. Simplicity and neatness attract attention.
  • Be concise; do not repeat information. Include only essential information, but be sure the message is complete. Keep the learning objectives in mind to ensure the appropriate focus of information in this display tool. 
  • Be sure content is current and free of spelling, grammar, and mathematical errors,
  • Add textures, if desired, by using a variety of paper and fabrics.
  • Make titles catchy and crisp, using 10 or fewer words (no longer than two lines) and keeping lettering large enough to be read from a distance of at least 20 feet.
  • Letters should be straight and at least 1 inch in height to be read easily at 4 to 6 feet away. Avoid using all capital letters except for very short titles and labels. Use capitals for only the first letter of each word in titles with more than two to three words or as the first word of a sentence.
  • Use a title or introductory statement that orients readers to the subject.
  • Logically sequence the written and graphic components. Use letter-quality script or laser print instead of dot matrix print if using computer generated type.
  • Use arrows, circles, or directional lines to merge the parts to achieve correct focus, flow, sequence, and unity.
  • Achieve balance in visual weight on each side by positioning information around an imaginary central axis running vertically and horizontally.
  • Handouts can be used to supplement, highlight, and reinforce the messages conveyed by the poster.
  • If a poster is to be transported, use durable backboards and overlays (Styrofoam, heavy cardboard, lamination, or acrylic sprays).

    Bushy (1991) devised a 30-item research poster appraisal tool (R-PAT) still relevant today that further assists nurses in critiquing posters specifically designed for research. This tool can be modified for use in preparing and evaluating posters as tools for educational purposes.

    The ability of a poster to influence behavior or expand awareness can be greatly enhanced by careful consideration of its content, intended audience, and design elements.The interaction of the viewer with the message is the key to a poster's success. 

    This HIV/AIDS awareness poster and the classic World War I poster “Uncle Sam Wants YOU!” are examples of the element of visceral connection between viewer and message that lingers in memory. 

Audiovisual Materials Material In Nursing Education

    Technology has changed the traditional approach to teaching. Nowhere is this trend more evident than with the audiovisual media. Audiovisual materials support and enrich the education process by stimulating the senses of seeing and hearing, adding variety to the teaching-learning experience, and instilling visual memories, which have been found to be more permanent than auditory memories (Kessels, 2003). 

    Audiovisual elements have been known to increase understanding and retention of information as well as satisfaction with care by combining what people hear with what they see (Gysels & Higginson, 2007; Jeste, Dunn, Folsom, & Zisook, 2008). 

    Technology software and hardware are exceptional aids because many can influence all three domains of learning (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) by promoting cognitive development, stimulating attitude change, and helping to build psychomotor skills.

    The term multimedia learning refers to the use of two or more types of learning modes (eg, audio, visual, or animation) that can be accessed via a computer to engage the learner in the content. Blended learning-a more recent term in education-combines e-learning technology with more traditional instructor-led teaching methods, such as a lecture or demonstration. 

    Audiovisual technologies often offer learners more control over content as well as over the sequencing, pacing, and timing of information, which allows teaching and learning experiences to be tailored to meet behavioral objectives for every individual. 

    Innovations in instructional media, particularly e-learning technologies, are revolutionizing education, enabling learning to be more individualized (Petty, 2013) and transforming the role of educators to become “facilitators of learning and assessors of competency” (Ruiz, Mintzer, & Leipzig , 2006, p. 207).

    In our increasingly technological age, educators must be aware of which audiovisual tools are available, how tools in actuality and potentially have an effect on the ability to learn, and how they might apply the various tools at their disposal effectively and efficiently. When and to what extents educators should use such tools to enhance teaching depends on many variables, not the least of which is the educator's comfort level and expertise in operating these technological devices. 

    Also, it should not be forgotten that some adult learners may have difficulty being coming oriented to the newer modes of teaching and learning and that some learners may have physical or cognitive limitations that require the nurse to avoid certain types of audiovisual tools.

    In a riveting article, Prensky (2001) declares that today's young people are no longer the audiences the educational system was originally designed to teach. A number of younger learners have been raised entirely in the digital technology era, surrounded by and oriented to computers for example, desktop computers, notebooks, and netbooks as well as smartphones and many other electronic devices that are integral to their everyday lives . Such individuals are known as digital natives. 

    Many educators and adult learners, in contrast, who may not have been born during this age of technology, have been forced to acquire new ways of communicating-a process somewhat akin to learning a second language. Prensky (2001) refers to these individuals as digital immigrants. The challenge for many educators who have for years spoken a different language, then, is to adapt to as well as adopt the newest forms of instructional tools to teach natives of the digital age. 

    Digital natives are comfort-able with multitasking and receiving information rapidly. Use of hypertext and random access comes naturally to them. Likewise, use of streaming video media such as YouTube and interactive computer learning modules, as well as video gaming and streaming videos, is commonplace for this generation. Conversely, for educators not well versed in the use of digital technologies to assist and supplement instruction, the challenge to use such technologies effectively is ongoing.

    As with any instructional materials, major concerns affecting which tools nurses choose include accuracy and appropriateness of content; resources available for the purchase or rental of software programs and hardware equipment; and the time, money, and expertise needed to either introduce new technologies or self-produce audiovisual materials.

    Audiovisual materials can be categorized into five major types of media: projected, audio, video, telecommunications, and computer formats. Computer technology, particularly, idly altering the ways in which educators' information and interact with students. For e. ample, students are using text messaging as a primary means of communication with one another, whereas educators may be more familiar with using e-mail.

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