Projected Learning Resources In Nursing Education

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Resources In Nursing Education for Projected Learning

Projected Learning Resources In Nursing Education

What Is Projected Learning Resources, Guidelines and Suggestions for Preparing a Presentation, Guidelines for Overhead Projectors and Transparences In Nursing Education , Audio Learning Resources In Nursing Education, Compact Discs and Digital Sound Players In Nursing Education, Radio and Podcasts In Nursing Education, Video Learning Resources In Nursing Education, Network Guidelines in Nursing Education.

What Is Projected Learning Resources

    The projected learning resources category of media includes overhead transparencies, PowerPoint slides, SMART Board systems, and other computer outputs that are projected onto a screen. These media types are appropriate for audiences of various sizes. A SMART Board is a large whiteboard that uses touch technology to project messages via a personal computing input system, such as a mouse or keyboard. 

    Although very flexible and one of the newest technology instruments for teaching, they are still costly to purchase and not widely adopted yet for patient education (SMART, 2009).Microsoft PowerPoint. Microsoft's computer generated slideshow software program, PowerPoint, has replaced conventional slides and overheads as tools for instruction. 

    PowerPoint slides are easy to design, economical to produce, effective as an instructional tool if used properly, and an impressive medium by which to share information with a large or small audience (de Wet, 2006). The software program offers the flexibility to make changes in the slides whenever necessary as well as flexibility during the presentation to repeat slides, add new slides, or skip slides to move ahead to other content.

    PowerPoint slides have many advantages. They are an excellent medium for conveying a message because they are an attractive mode for learning at all ages in a manner that facilitates retention and recall. They can enhance an oral presentation by adding visual dimensions to the narration. Presentations can be burned onto a CD or DVD, transferred to a flash drive, or downloaded from a server for presentation through a portable notebook computer. 

    Digital photographs and graphics can easily be scanned and added to PowerPoint slides. Animation also can be included as a feature. Finally, slides can be personalized or tailored to meet specific learner needs.Careful composition of slides is necessary to avoid clutter. Too much detail makes it difficult for the viewer to identify the major message (Brown, 2001; Polyakova-Norwood, 2009). 

Guidelines and Suggestions for Preparing a Presentation

    Dufrene and Lehman (2004) provide a four-step process for assisting educators to develop and deliver lively PowerPoint presentations designed to avoid the “death by PowerPoint” experience for intended audiences. Educators should adhere to the following suggestions when preparing a PowerPoint slide presentation: 

  • Illustrate one idea per slide. Keep images simple by using clear pictures, symbols, or diagrams. Put long lists of words or complex figures on handouts that supplement the slides.
  • Avoid distorted images by keeping the images' proportion of height to width at 2:3. Use large, easily readable, and professional looking lettering.
  • Brown (2001) and Microsoft (2017) suggest more important tips for employing this innovative tool productively:
  • Use this medium to generate interaction between the teacher and the learner, rather than as a tool that provides an outline of content to be followed for presenting information only in a traditional lecture format.
  • On various slides, leave out some points to be made or ideas that should be included so that the learner must figure out what may be missing. This omission encourages critical thinking by the audience.
  • During the presentation, open a blank slide and type in the main points as they emerge from interactive discussion details to a minimum, by including no more than six points about any one idea per slide and limiting the word count to approximately six words per point .
  • Use contrasting but bold complementary colors so that the text of each slide is clearly visible. Be sure the background color is dark enough that the words in print are not washed out.
  • Be sure the print size on each slide is large enough for the audience to read with ease at a distance. The floor test is one simple method to determine appropriate print size that is, can you clearly read a printout of the slide placed on the floor in front of you when in a standing position?
  • Minimize or avoid animated text, sounds, and fancy transitions, which can distract the reader from the message being conveyed. Keep unity of design from slide to slide by using a master slide as a template for the entire presentation.
  • Provide audience members with hands outs of the slides (three slides per page) for purposes of note taking. Limit the number of slides to be projected for teaching to no more than one to two slides per minute (not to exceed 60 slides for a 1-hour presentation) to avoid including too much content during an allotted period of time. It is important to provide time for cognitive processing, which allows learners to internalize the concepts being presented, and to give learners a chance to discuss content and ask questions.

    Remember-visuals should enrich the message, not become the message. Overuse of slides may discourage audience participation, potentially sacrificing rich interactive discussions (Brown, 2001; Du Frene & Lehman, 2004), Dickerson (2005) reminds educators that audiovisual resources are simply tools that they should use to help achieve teaching objectives. 

    She notes a common complaint that PowerPoint presentations encourage learners to think only in bullet points and suggests laying out presentations with enough space between bullets for learners to fill in critical information developed during a presentation. For further information helpful to the nurse educator, de Wet (2006) addresses both the advantages and disadvantages of these types of presentations, as well as best applications for effective use of PowerPoint slides. 

    Thus, the medium of PowerPoint must be used judiciously to avoid overuse and abuse as a tool for effective teaching and learning. Overhead Transparencies. Overhead transparencies are still used for teaching in a variety of settings, both in the classroom and for small-group presentations. Since the advent of PowerPoint, however, overheads are used less frequently. 

    Nevertheless, use of transparencies as the software and the overhead or doc cam (document camera) projector as the hardware offers some advantages. As with PowerPoint presentations. large numbers of people can see the projected images at one time, and images can be enlarged for easier viewing. 

    Most important, transparencies can be shown in fully lighted rooms, they are inexpensive to produce or purchase, diagrams and figures can readily be photocopied and made into transparencies, and multiple transparencies can be laid over one another to illustrate changes in the content or to build in progression of an idea. With doc cam projectors, an actual document can be cast on a screen, which eliminates the need to create transparencies.

    Among the disadvantages of overhead transparencies are the need for both specialized equipment for projection and the support of verbal feedback. For these reasons, this medium is more appropriate for use in a classroom than for purposes of individual self-instruction. Another disadvantage is that it is not easy for the educator to go back or skip ahead to a specific transparency, and transparencies are difficult for the presenter to keep in order while the educator is trying to stay focused on a presentation. 

    Also, the projector itself is awkward to transport. Moreover, for traditional overhead hardware, the noise given off by the fan of the machine can be distracting in a small room. The newer doc cam projectors, which generate no noise, are preferable to the older style models in this regard.

    It is essential that transparencies be viewed ahead of time for an assessment of their read ability, specifically related to the size of the lettering. Usually letters 0.25 inches high or letters that can be read at 10 feet away before projection are sufficient for easy reading. As with Power-Point slides, including too much content on an overhead transparency decreases its efficacy as a teaching tool. 

Guidelines for Overhead Projectors and Transparences In Nursing Education

    The following helpful guidelines for the use of traditional overhead projectors and transparencies are recommended (Babcock & Miller, 1994; Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 2002):

  • Do not block the audience's view of the screen by standing in front of the machine. This common error can best be solved by making a habit of sitting or standing to the side to avoid interference with the projected image.
  • Turn the projector off when you have finished referring to the transparency to keep the learners' attention on you and away from what is being projected. Constant use of the machine is also distracting because of the fan noise.
  • Keep the message on the transparency simple. Use hands outs to cover complex information as a supplement to your message.
  • Display only one point at a time by masking the rest with a piece of paper if you have listed several ideas on one transparency. This approach allows listeners to focus on what you are saying and give them time for note taking.
  • Use a screen large enough for the audience to read the projected information.
  • Use a light-colored blank wall as a projection surface if a screen is unavailable or too small.
  • Pull the projector closer to or farther away from the screen to change the size of the projection. This requires that the room be large enough to accommodate moving the equipment at a distance far enough away for adequate projection.
  • Use tinted film to reduce glare of light. Use colored pens to help organize information, to provide contrast to images, or to make specific points. Color is known to attract attention and help differentiate information for better retention and recall (D'Allessandro et al., 2001).
  • Use overlays to help illustrate complex or sequential ideas. Note, however, that too many overlays can make the picture fuzzy.

Audio Learning Resources In Nursing Education

    Audio technology, although it has existed for a long time, has not been used to any great extent for educational purposes until recently. For years, audiotapes and radio have been useful tools to get information for people who are visually impaired or blind or for those with serious motor impairment who could not easily get to a location for an education session. 

    However, with significant advances in audio software and hardware, as well as the adoption of audio technology for more than purely commercial use, CDs, digital sound players (eg, MP3 players, iPods), radio, and podcasts have become more popular tools for teaching and learning. 

    These resources can be used to deliver many different types of messages, can help learners who benefit from repetition and reinforcement, and are well suited for those individuals who enjoy or prefer auditory learning (Heinich et al., 2002). They are also useful media resources for teaching individuals who are illiterate or have low literacy (Santo, Laizner, & Shohet, 2005).

Compact Discs and Digital Sound Players In Nursing Education

    Digital sound files and CDs, which have re-placed traditional vinyl records and audiotapes, are very popular formats today. Use of these media for teaching has been growing because they have major advantages, such as being small in size, portable, inexpensive, simple to operate, easy to prepare or duplicate, and offering superior sound that does not deteriorate over time.

    Digital sound files and CDs (software) in conjunction with digital sound players and computers (hardware) are powerful tools to enhance, reinforce, or supplement information previously presented in other formats or to expose learners to information not otherwise easily available or accessible (Preston, 2009). 

    For example, recorded lung sounds, which allow comparison between normal and abnormal breathing, are available in both CD and digital sound file form. Such audio media on a variety of health topics, from stress reduction to programs on how to quit smoking, can be prepared specifically to meet the needs of a learner by reinforcing facts, giving feedback and directions, or providing support. 

    As early examples of the effective use of audio media, Hagopian (1996) described how audiotapes in- creased knowledge and self-care behaviors of persons undergoing radiation therapy, and Naperstek (1993) developed a large line of CDs on guided imagery that are used by practitioners and clients dealing with illness, surgery, and broad treatment modalities. 

    Feldman (2004) described the development, implementation. and evaluation of self directed learning using audiocassettes and pictures to teach basic child care, health, and safety skills to parents with intellectual disabilities. This study indicated that a significant number of these parents improved their parenting skills with these low-cost, low-tech materials.

    If digital sound files and CDs are instructor made, the learner will derive much comfort from hearing the nurse's familiar voice and reassuring words. Learners can listen to this information at their leisure and can review it as often as necessary. These media can be used almost anywhere, such as in the home, office, clinic, or hospital setting, and can be played while simultaneously driving a car or fixing a meal, thereby filling what normally would be considered wasted time.

    The versatility of CDs and digital sound players for application to education is currently growing at a rapid rate in academia as well as for patient and staff education in a clinical setting. As with all technologies, over time the cost of digital sound players is becoming very reasonable, and the software availability of digital sound files and CDs for healthcare education has increased.

    The disadvantages are few with using this type of medium. The biggest drawback is that they address only one sense-hearing-and, therefore, cannot be used by individuals with hearing impairment. Also, some learners may be easily distracted from the information being presented unless they have visuals to accompany the recorded information. 

    There is also no opportunity for interactive feedback between the listener and the speaker. As with any instructional tool, digital sound files and CDs should be used only as supplements to the various methods of teaching. 

Radio and Podcasts In Nursing Education

    The radio has tremendously affected the lives of many people for many years and is one of the oldest forms of audio technology. As early as the 1930s, the effectiveness of radio for health education was reported as influencing listeners' health behaviors (Turner, Drenckhahn, & Bates, 1935). Because of its commercial nature and appeal to mass audiences, it has typically been used more for pleasure than for education.

    In recent years, the medium of radio has been exploited by both public and private radio stations, which have begun airing community service and medical talk shows for public education on health issues (Hussain, 2008). 

    Radio is serving as a medium for patient education campaigns because it can reach large numbers of listeners at great distances at relatively low unit cost, it functions in real time, and it is purely auditory, which stimulates the listeners' imagination and abstract thinking abilities. Also, it is effective as a vehicle for teaching health education to those who are illiterate or low literate and to culturally diverse populations (Duby, 1990; Romero-Gwynn & Marshall, 1990). 

    These programs are helpful in delivering a message and, because of the convenience and popularity of radio as a communication tool, represent a useful vehicle for teaching and learning (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2007).

    Podcasts are becoming an increasingly popular form of student and client education as well. With this technology, audiences of learners can download lectures and informational sessions about various health topics. They can then listen to these broadcasts on their computers or digital audio players (Kay, 2012; Moore & Smith, 2012)

    The disadvantage of radio and podcasts relates to the difficulty of consistently delivering information on major topics to general as well as specific populations. That is, the nurse as educator has little control over the variety and depth of topics discussed or how regularly learners listen to a program. In addition, the general nature of radio programs and podcasts is not tailored to meet individual needs. 

    Unlike CDs and digital sound files, radio does not allow the opportunity for repetition of information. However, because of its widespread use and versatility, it has the potential for becoming a major source for important and useful healthcare information, especially if airtime is funded by private foundations or sponsored by special groups or agencies dedicated to health teaching. 

Video Learning Resources In Nursing Education

    Digital video files and DVDs (software), along with camcorders, DVD recorders, television sets, and computer monitors (hardware) as electronic devices with which to view them, have become commonplace in homes. Nurse educators are using these resources extensively for teaching in a variety of settings. 

    For example, multimedia streaming video and webinars have satisfied the increasing demand for new ways to educate professional and paraprofessional staff in all types of healthcare and academic settings. The webinar format, which allows for interaction between speaker and participants even though sessions are virtual, and streaming technology, which plays audio and visual files from the Internet, are cost effective, easy to use, time efficient, and available wherever the Internet is accessible (Beranova & Sykes, 2007; Manny, 2006; Smaldino, Lowther, & Russell, 2012).

    In a review of research studies, Jeste et al. (2008) found that multimedia DVDs for educating consumers about illness management and treatment decision increased learners' under-standing of medical information and enabled both patients and their caregivers to take a more active role in making healthcare choices. 

    Clark and Lester (2000) conducted a research study on video interventions with an older adult population. They found this instructional tool to be as effective in changing behaviors in this group as in teaching and learning of adolescents and younger adults.

    In other studies, videos for in service education have been found to be a potentially powerful medium for learning (Brooks, Renvall, Bulow & Ramsdell, 2000), and Green et al. (2003) reported significant usefulness of streamed video as a resource to support learning by students. YouTube has proven to be a popular source of streamed videos for patient and professional education (Emory University School of Medicine, 2017; Stellefson et al., 2014). 

    Video files and DVDs are among the major nonprint media tools for enhancing client/family, staff, and student education because tapes can be simultaneously entertaining and educational (Beranova & Sykes, 2007; Bussey-Smith & Rossen, 2007; Gysels & Higginson, 2007 ). Digital video files and DVDs, which incorporate the sound quality of CDs and superior images of video by way of digital technology. Have incredible storage qualities (similar in capacity to CDs) that allow for long-term use. 

    The market for this technology has increased as the cost of the software and hardware has become more reasonable (Heinich et al., 2002). Originally designed for entertainment purposes only. today these discs are popular with a wide range of audiences in both the fields of higher education and client/staff education. Healthcare facilities often broadcast client education segments via video files and DVDs over in house televisions. 

    The convenience and flexibility of these instructional tools allow educators to use video learning resources for individual client teaching situations as well as for large-group instruction. The usefulness of video derives from the combination of color, motion, different angles, and sound that enhances learning through visual as well as auditory senses. 

    For example, Leiner, Handal, and Williams (2004) compared the effectiveness of printed information about polio vaccination from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with the same message converted into a production of animated cartoons using marketing and advertising techniques . The findings showed that the animated cartoon was more effective in delivering the same message than the written instructional materials.

    The disadvantage of purchased digital video files and DVDs is that they may be beyond the viewers' level of understanding, inappropriate for learner needs, or too long. This digital technology has become very inexpensive, and the ready portability of recorders allows educators to capture situations unavailable elsewhere for reinforcement of learning.

Network Guidelines in Nursing Education

    Williams, Wolgin, and Hodge (1998) and Brame (2016) have outlined detailed steps for creating educational videos. They suggest striving for network quality production by following these guidelines:

  • Write a script for the program. Rehearse thoroughly. With a small budget, use a single camera with zoom capacity. A larger budget may allow a professional to be hired to edit the final product.
  • Consider hiring a video technician on a per-hour or per diem basis to yield a quality production in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. The operator of the recorder needs to be knowledgeable about motion picture technology, such as the use of close-ups, dramatization of situations, and angle effects, which are not in the usual skill set of many nurse educators.
  • Always be mindful of the learning objectives to avoid going astray with the informational message.
  • Keep the teaching session short. The attention spans of learners vary, but the longer the video, the more risk of losing viewer interest. A video that is 5 to 10 minutes long is ideal.

    Digital video cameras are particularly an excellent means to capture real-life and practical experience situations. Role modeling of specific behaviors, attitudes, and values also can be demonstrated powerfully through this medium. 

    Once scenes are captured on tape, a video can serve as an excellent teaching tool to promote discussion and for analyzing and critiquing behaviors that provide direct feedback to learners in the demonstration or rehearsal of complex interpersonal and psychomotor skills. 

    A study by Hill, Hooper, and Wahl (2000) showed improved performance and learner satisfaction among nursing students using video playback as a learning strategy for enhancing their clinical skills. Similar findings were reported by Winters, Hauck, Riggs, Clawson, and Collins (2003).

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