Domains of Health Care Education and Nursing In Advance Level

Nurses Educator 2

 Health Care Education and Nursing In Advance Level and Domains

 Domains of Health Care Education and Nursing In Advance Level

 Domains, Competencies, and Sub-Competencies for Entry level Professional Nursing Education and Advanced level Nursing Education,Social Determinants.

What Is Evidence Based Practice In Health Education

    The delivery of optimal health care requires the integration of current evidence and clinical expertise with individual and family preferences. Evidence based practice is a problem solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values (Melnyk, Fineout-Overhold, Stillwell, & Williamson, 2010). 

    In addition, there is a need to consider those scientific studies that ask: whose perspectives are requested, who creates the evidence, how is that evidence created, what questions remain unanswered, and what harm may be created? Answers to these questions are paramount to incorporating meaningful, culturally safe, evidence based practice (Nursing Mutual Aid, 2020).

Health Policy In Health Education

    Health policy involves goal directed decision making about health that is the result of an authorized public decision making process (Keller & Ridenour, 2021). Nurses play critical roles in advocating for policy that impacts patients and the profession, especially when speaking with a united voice on issues that affect nursing practice and health outcomes. 

    Nurses can have a profound influence on health policy by becoming engaged in the policy process on many levels, which includes interpreting, evaluating, and leading policy change.

Social Determinants of Health

    Determinants of health, a broader term, include personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that impact health. Social determinants of health, a primary component of determinants of health “are the conditions in the environment where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality of life outcomes and risks.”

    The social determinants of health contribute to wide health disparities and inequities in areas such as economic stability, education quality and access, healthcare quality and access, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context (Healthy People, 2030). 

    Nursing practices such as assessment, health promotion, access to care, and patient teaching support improvements in health outcomes. The social determinants of health are closely interrelated with the concepts of diversity, equity, and inclusion, health policy, and communication.

Domains, Competencies, and Sub-Competencies for Entry level Professional Nursing Education and Advanced level Nursing Education

Domain 1: Knowledge for Nursing Practice

    Descriptor: Integration, translation, and application of established and evolving disciplinary nursing knowledge and ways of knowing, as well as knowledge from other disciplines, including a foundation in liberal arts and natural and social sciences. This distinguishes the practice of professional nursing and forms the basis for clinical judgment and innovation in nursing practice.

    Contextual Statement: Knowledge for Nursing Practice provides the context for understanding nursing as a scientific discipline. The lens of nursing, informed by nursing history, knowledge, and science, reflects nursing's desire to incorporate multiple perspectives into nursing practice, leading to nursing's unique way of knowing and caring.

    Preparation in both liberal arts and sciences and professional nursing coursework provides graduates with the essential abilities to function as independent, intellectually curious, socially responsible, competent practitioners (Tobbell, 2018). 

    A liberal education creates the foundation for the development of intellectual and practical abilities within the context of nursing. Further, liberal education is the key to understanding self and others; contributes to safe, quality care; and informs the development of clinical judgment.

Domain 2: Person Centered Care

    Descriptor: Person centered care focuses on the individual within multiple complicated contexts, including family and/or important others. Person centered care is holistic, individualized, fair, respectful, compassionate, coordinated, evidence based, and developmentally appropriate. Person centered care builds on a scientific body of knowledge that guides nursing practice regardless of specialty or functional area.

    Contextual Statement: Person centered care is the core purpose of nursing as a discipline. This purpose intertwines with any functional area of nursing practice, from the point of care where the hands of those who give and receive care meet, to the point of systems level nursing leadership. Foundational to person centered care is respect for diversity, differences, preferences, values, needs, resources, and the determinants of health unique to the individual. 

    The person is a full partner and the source of control in team-based care. Person-centered care requires the intentional presence of the nurse seeking to know the totality of the individual's lived experiences and connections to others (family, important others, community). 

    As a scientific and practical discipline, nurses employ a relational lens that fosters mutuality, active participation, and individual empowerment. This focus is foundational to educational preparation from entry to advanced levels irrespective of practice areas.

    With an emphasis on diversity, equity, and inclusion, person-centered care is based on best evidence and clinical judgment in the planning and delivery of care across time, spheres of care, and developmental levels. Contributing to or making diagnoses is one essential aspect of nursing practice and critical to an informed plan of care and improving outcomes of care (Olson et al., 2019). 

    Diagnoses at the system level are equally as relevant, affecting operations that impact care for individuals. Person centered care results in shared meaning with the healthcare team, recipient of care, and the healthcare system, thus creating humanization of wellness and healing from birth to death.

Domain 3: Population Health

    Descriptor: Population health spans the healthcare delivery continuum from public health prevention to disease management of populations and describes collaborative activities with both traditional and non-traditional partnerships from affected communities, public health, industry, academia, health care, local government entities, and others for the improvement of equitable population health outcomes. (Kindig & Stoddart, 2003; Kindig, 2007; Swartout & Bishop, 2017; CDC, 2020).

    Contextual Statement: A population is a discrete group that the nurse and others care for across settings at local, regional, national, and global levels. Population health spans the healthcare delivery continuum, including public health, acute care, ambulatory care, and long-term care. 

    Population health also encompasses collaborative activities among stakeholders all relevant individuals and organizations involved in care, including patients and communities themselves for the improvement of a population's health status. The purpose of these collaborative activities, including development of interventions and policies, is to strive towards health equity and improved health for all. 

    Diversity, equity, inclusion, and ethics must be emphasized and valued. Accountability for outcomes is shared by all, since outcomes arise from multiple factors that influence the health of a defined group. Population health includes population management through systems thinking, including health promotion and illness prevention, to achieve population health goals (Storfjell, Wehtle, Winslow, & Saunders, 2017). 

    Nurses play a critical role in advocating for, developing, and implementing policies that impact population health globally and locally. In addition, nurses respond to crises and provide care during emergencies, disasters, epidemics, or pandemics. They play an essential role in system preparedness and ethical response initiatives. 

    Although each type of public health emergency will likely require a unique set of competencies, preparedness for responding begins with a population health perspective and a particular focus on surveillance, prevention, and containment of factors contributing to the emergency.

Domain 4: Scholarship for the Nursing Discipline

    Descriptor: The generation, synthesis, translation, application, and dissemination of nursing knowledge to improve health and transform health care (AACN, 2018).

  Contextual Statement: Nursing scholarship informs science, enhances clinical practice, influences policy, and impacts best practices for educating nurses as clinicians, scholars, and leaders. Scholarship is inclusive of discovery, application, integration, and teaching. 

    While not all inclusive, the scholarship of discovery includes primary empirical research, analysis of large data sets, theory development, and methodological studies. The scholarship of practice interprets, draws together, applies, and brings new insight to original research (Boyer, 1990; AACN 2018).

    Knowledge of the basic principles of the research process, including the ability to criticize research and determine its applicability to nursing's body of knowledge, is critical. Ethical behavior in the conduct and dissemination of research and advocacy for human subjects are essential components of nursing's role in the process of improving health and health care. 

    Whereas the research process is the generation of new knowledge, evidence-based practice (EBP) is the process for the application, translation, and implementation of best evidence into clinical decision-making. While evidence may emerge from research, EBP extends beyond just data to include patient preferences and values as well as clinical expertise. 

    Nurses, as innovators and leaders within the interprofessional team, use the uniqueness of nursing in nurse-patient relationships to provide optimal care and address health inequities, structural racism, and systemic inequity.

Domain 5: Quality and Safety

    Descriptor: Employment of established and emerging principles of safety and improvement science. Quality and safety, as core values of nursing practice, enhance quality and minimize risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance.

    Contextual Statement: Provision of safe, quality care necessitates knowing and using established and emerging principles of safety science in care delivery. Quality and safety encompass provider and recipient safety and the recognition of synergy between the two. Quality or safety challenges are viewed primarily as the result of system failures, as opposed to the errors of an individual. 

    In an environment fostering quality and safety, caregivers are empowered and encouraged to promote safety and take appropriate action to prevent and report adverse events and near misses. Fundamental to the provision of safe, quality care, providers of care adopt, integrate, and disseminate current practice guidelines and evidence-based interventions.

    Safety is inclusive of attending to work environment hazards, such as violence, burnout, ergonomics, and chemical and biological agents; there is a synergistic relationship between employee safety and patient safety. A safe and just environment minimizes risk to both recipients and providers of care. 

    It requires a shared commitment to create and maintain a physically, psychologically, secure, and just environment. Safety demands an obligation to remain non-punitive in detecting, reporting, and analyzing errors, possible exposures, and near misses when they occur.

    Quality and safety are interdependent, as safety is a necessary attribute of quality care. For quality health care to exist, care must be safe, effective, timely, efficient, equitable, and person centered. Quality care is the extent to which care services improve desired health outcomes and are consistent with patient preferences and current professional knowledge (IOM, 2001). 

    Additionally, quality care includes collaborative engagement with the recipient of care in assuming responsibility for health promotion and illness treatment behaviors. Quality care both improves desired health outcomes, and prevents harm (IOM, 2001). Addressing contributors and barriers to quality and safety, at both individual and system levels, are necessary. 

    Essentially, everyone in health care is responsible for quality care and patient safety. Nurses are uniquely positioned to lead or co-lead teams that address the improvement of quality and safety because of their knowledge and ethical code (ANA Code of Ethics, 2015). Increasing complexity of care has contributed to continued gaps in healthcare safety.

Domain 6: Inter professional Partnerships

    Descriptor: Intentional collaboration across professions and with care team members, patients, families, communities, and other stakeholders to optimize care, enhance the healthcare experience, and strengthen outcomes.

  Contextual Statement: Professional partnerships that include interprofessional, intraprofessional, and paraprofessional partnerships, build on a consistent demonstration of core professional values (altruism, excellence, caring, ethics, respect, communication, and shared accountability) in the provision of team-based, person-based centered care. Nursing knowledge and expertise uniquely contributes to the intentional work within teams and in concert with patient, family, and community preferences and goals. 

    Interprofessional partnerships require a coordinated, integrated, and collaborative implementation of the unique knowledge, beliefs, and skills of the full team for the end purpose of optimized care delivery. Effective collaboration requires an understanding of team dynamics and an ability to work effectively in care-oriented teams. Leadership of the team varies depending on needs of the individual, community, population, and context of care.

Domain 7: Systems-Based Practice

    Descriptor: Responding to and leading within complex systems of health care. Nurses effectively and proactively coordinate resources to provide safe, quality, and equitable care to diverse populations.

    Contextual Statement: Using evidence-based methodologies, nurses lead innovative solutions to address complex health problems and ensure optimal care. Understanding of systems-based practice is foundational to the delivery of quality care and incorporates key concepts of organizational structure, including relationships among macro-, meso-, and microsystems across healthcare settings. 

    Knowledge of financial and payment models relative to reimbursement and healthcare costs is essential. In addition, the impact of local, regional, national, and global structures, systems, and regulations on individuals and diverse populations must be considered when evaluating patient outcomes. 

    As change agents and leaders, nurses possess the intellectual capacity to be agile in response to continually evolving healthcare systems, to address structural racism and other forms of discrimination, and to advocate for the needs of diverse populations. Systems based practice is predicated on an ethical practice environment where professional and organizational values are aligned, and structures and processes enable ethical practice by all members of the institution.

    Integrated healthcare systems are highly complex, and gaps or failures in service and delivery can cause ineffective, harmful outcomes. These outcomes also span individuals through global networks. 

    Cognitive shifting from focused to big picture is a crucial skill set. Similarly, the ability for nurses to predict change, employ improvement strategies, and exercise fiscal prudence are critical skills. System awareness, innovation, and design are also needed to address such issues as structural racism and systemic inequity.

Domain 8: Informatics and Healthcare Technologies

    Descriptor: Information and communication technologies and informatics processes are used to provide care, gather data, form information to drive decision making, and support professionals as they expand knowledge and wisdom for practice. Informatics processes and technologies are used to manage and improve the delivery of safe, high-quality, and efficient healthcare services in accordance with best practice and professional and regulatory standards.

   Contextual Statement: Healthcare professionals interact with patients, families, communities, and populations in technology-rich environments. Nurses, as essential members of the healthcare team, use information and communication technologies and informatics tools in their direct and indirect care roles. 

    The technologies, the locations in which they are used, the users interacting with the technology, the communication occurring, and the work being done all impact the data collected, information formed, decisions made, and the knowledge generated. Additionally, the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare settings changes how people, processes, and policies interact. 

    Using these tools in the provision of care has both short- and long-term consequences for the quality of care, efficiency of communications, and connections between team members, patients, and consumers. It is essential that nurses at all levels understand their role and the value of their input in health information technology analysis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. 

    With the prevalence of patient-focused health information technologies, all nurses have a responsibility to advocate for equitable access and assist patients and consumers to optimally use these tools to engage in care, improve health, and manage health conditions.

Domain 9: Professionalism

    Descriptor: Formation and cultivation of a sustainable professional identity, including accountability, perspective, collaborative disposition, and behavior, that reflects nursing's characteristics and values.

    Contextual Statement: Professionalism encompasses the development of a nursing identity by embracing the values of integrity, altruism, inclusivity, compassion, courage, humility, advocacy, caring, autonomy, humanity, and social justice . Professional identity formation necessitates the development of emotional intelligence to promote social good, engage in social justice, and demonstrate ethical behavior, moral courage, and assertiveness in decision making and actions. 

    Nursing professionalism is a continuous process of socialization that requires the nurse to give back to the profession through the mentorship and development of others.

    Professional identity, influenced by one's personal identity and unique background, is formed throughout one's education and career. Nursing identity flourishes through engagement and reflection in multiple experiences that is defined by differing perspectives and voices. 

    As a result, nurses embrace the history, characteristics, and values of the discipline and think, act, and feel like a nurse. Professional identity formation is not a linear process but rather one that responds to challenges and matures through professional experiences as one develops confidence as a nurse.

Domain 10: Personal, Professional, and Leadership Development

    Descriptor: Participation in activities and self-reflection that foster personal health, resilience, and well being; contribute to lifelong learning; and support the acquisition of nursing expertise and the assertion of leadership.

  Contextual Statement: Competency in personal, professional, and leadership development encompasses three areas: 1) development of the nurse as an individual who is resilient, agile, and capable of adapting to ambiguity and change; 2) development of the nurse as a professional responsible for lifelong learning and ongoing self reflection; and 3) development of the nurse as a leader proficient in asserting control, influence, and power in professional and personal contexts, which includes advocacy for patients and the nursing profession as leaders within the healthcare arena. 

    Development of these dimensions requires a commitment to personal growth, sustained expansion of professional knowledge and expertise, and determined leadership practice in a variety of contexts.

    Graduates must develop attributes and skills critical to the viability of the profession and practice environments. The aim is to promote diversity and retention in the profession, self-awareness, avoidance of stress-induced emotional and mental exhaustion, and redirection of energy from negative perceptions to positive influence through leadership opportunities.

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